Forbidden Adore in the Good Gatsby, Romeo & Juliet, and Adore Song of J Alfred Prufrock

Stephanie Meyers’s Twilight collection has resuscitated preferred interest in tales about forbidden enjoy. All around the world, Twilight readers have been acquiring out copies of textbooks like Jane Eyre, Satisfaction and Prejudice, Wuthering Heights, and the Undead Hair Handbook.

However, Meyers’s collection has been criticized for providing impressionable teenagers and tweens unrealistic expectations about romance, to say almost nothing of that entire vampire-little one-having-its-way-as a result of-your-uterus matter.

With Fb teams these kinds of as “Why Isn’t really Edward Cullen Real?” and “Twilight Has Ruined Any Probability I Have at a Realistic Marriage” getting increasingly stylish, many scruffy, improperly-dressed teen males dread that their odds at romance are dwindling. (To even the taking part in field, every other media outlet has retained its inverse female-splendor / female-clothing ratio at an all-time substantial.)

This bombardment of unrealistic expectations is a lot more than many of us can just take. For individuals who like their forbidden enjoy oldschool – agonizing, uncomfortable, and perhaps lethal – here are some classics that ought to occur as a breath of fresh new, depressing air.

Painful State of affairs Variety 1: Mutual Destruction. Forbidden boy satisfies forbidden female, forbidden boy and female wed secretly, forbidden newlyweds accidentally die in an elaborate plan to skip town. This is the Romeo and Juliet method to enjoy and it occurs… perfectly, not all the time, but it occurs.

Causes We Like It: You know how fairytale constantly finish suitable immediately after the wonderful damsel and the charming prince get married? That’s mainly because nobody wants to hear about diaper improvements or home loan payments. A violent finish cuts out all the unexciting stuff, in addition it faucets into the primitive, reptilian section of our mind that hyperlinks sexual intercourse with threat and demise. Which, by the way, is not the exact matter as un-demise.

Painful State of affairs Variety Two: Silent Longing. Boy satisfies female, boy decides female is out of his league, boy swallows his thoughts and vows to die on your own. This is the Adore Song of J. Alfred Prufrock strategy to enjoy and, according to our mystery diary study, it does in reality materialize all the time.

Why We Like It: We have soooo been there. Preventing confrontation is a great way to not only protect your dignity, but also preserve the fantasy alive: we’re betting that distinctive another person won’t at any time burp, fart, or drunk-dial your mom. On prime of it all, the scenario also appeals to our depressive fatalism. It really is not like this self-pity’s gonna wallow in itself.

Painful State of affairs Variety 3: Self-Destruction. Boy satisfies unattainable female, boy embarks on a valuable existence of crime to impress female with fancy mansion, boy receives thoroughly shafted. Er, shot. Make that both equally. This is the Good Gatsby wooing method and, even though attractive in its have suitable, we will not endorse that you try out it at house.

Why We Like It: Dying for a bring about can be pretty noble – and receiving filthy wealthy along the way has its perks as perfectly. Then, when your enjoy interest turns out to be selfish, entitled, and so not truly worth your time, you can take pleasure in the distinctive gratification that will come with figuring out you’re a outstanding currently being. This emotion will last quite a few entire seconds just before that bullet matter gets an difficulty.

Resource by Paul Thomson

Surviving Freshman Calendar year at Bentley Faculty

I am at this time likely to be a senior at Bentley Faculty in Waltham, MA, so I have a whole lot of working experience and know how issues perform at Bentley. As a freshman at Bentley Faculty you will be dwelling in the Tree Dorms, Slade Hall, or Miller Hall. If you have a alternative I would remarkably suggest that you choose to dwell in the Tree Dorms simply because this is the place the greater part of freshman are likely to be dwelling, so there will be additional activity likely on in the creating and you will satisfy additional men and women. Slade Hall is across the parking whole lot from the Tree Dorms, so that would be my second alternative and Miller Hall is compact and form of isolated, so that would be my very last alternative for freshman housing. If Bentley features you the prospect to dwell with higher class males I would drop their provide and dwell with freshman. It will make the transition into college or university life a whole lot much easier.

I registered for lessons during orientation and it is form of a frantic time. Normally your to start with two years at Bentley you are focusing on satisfying your basic training specifications, so registration your to start with two years is fairly straightforward. The lessons that you take will fairly substantially be preferred for you, but you will nevertheless have the prospect to decide on which professor you would like to take. I suggest that ahead of you go to the Bentley orientation that you go on RateMyProfessors and SyllabusCentral and do a very little exploration on professors so that you finish up with some fantastic professors your freshman calendar year.

As a freshman you will generally be consuming at Season’s Dining Hall, Harry’s Corner, Boloco, and A&W. Your meal program handles unrestricted entries into Season’s Dining Hall, but the good quality of food items there is not much too fantastic. At Harry’s Corner you can use your discretionary funds and Harry’s is fantastic for getting a sub, pizza, or fried food items like mozzarella sticks or rooster fingers. Harry’s is also close to freshman housing, so you will possibly be likely there a whole lot. Boloco and A&W are on reduce campus, which is a fantastic stroll, but I think it is worth it for Boloco. Boloco is my preferred food items on campus and the moment once again they take discretionary funds.

As a freshman your lessons must be fairly straightforward. After freshman calendar year your lessons will come to be a whole lot additional difficult, so I suggest that you buckle down and get some fantastic grades to boost your GPA freshman calendar year. It will be difficult to recover your GPA from a undesirable freshman calendar year. There are two pretty straightforward issues you can do to boost your GPA as a freshman. The to start with is to just go to class and the second is to generally do your homework. Even if you homework is not likely to be gathered I nevertheless remarkably advise that you just do it on your possess and try to continue to be disciplined. It is much too straightforward to set your homework off and then get genuinely guiding and not be equipped to understand everything ahead of a mid-phrase or ultimate. Be absolutely sure to pace on your own throughout the semester and you must do great.

Resource by Andrew Nadeau

The Individuality of Protagonists in Lee’s to Kill a Mockingbird and Shakespeare’s Hamlet

For Western literature, the principle of individuality is a remarkably the latest innovation. It goes with out stating that the classics feature a lot of amazing specific people, but they are only amazing in their potential to fulfill and exceed the best expectations of their roles in modern society. (Just consider Beowulf actively playing the top male aspect as the warrior, provider, and peace-keeper.) This is why so quite a few old tales conclude in weddings, which are essentially an initiation ceremony for turning persons into a group device.

To illustrate a position, let’s search at the protagonists of Hamlet and To Kill a Mockingbird. In the former, Prince Hamlet’s nonconformity turns the enjoy into a tragedy, while in the latter, Scout’s growth into an impartial thinker tends to make the novel a bildungsroman.

Hamlet is brooding, passive aggressive, misleading, and completely uncompromising. Even if you adore him for it, these usually are not precisely princely qualities. At a time when he (and the rest of the kingdom) is envisioned to get over the former king and buddy up to the new one, all Hamlet can do is grieve. He even distinguishes himself from his friends visually by sporting the darkish clothing of mourning.

When the ghost of Hamlet, Sr. informs Hamlet, Jr. that his demise was a murder – and a fratricidal one at that – Hamlet proceeds to… do nothing about it. For 4 acts. If this strikes you as unthinkably passive, think about how unacceptable it would have been again in the working day when sword fighting was the way to settle a score. To make matters even worse, Hamlet is painfully informed of his inaction for case in point, when he notices a soldier marching to struggle for something that won’t even issue him, Hamlet despairs in his failure not only as a male, but also as a prince and a son.

As if he weren’t isolated adequate to start out with, Hamlet even more distinguishes himself from the royal court docket by pretending to be crazy. He normally takes on the job of the lunatic outcast with these types of commitment that even following unintentionally slaying his girlfriend’s father – recognizing complete perfectly what THAT will do for their romantic relationship – he pretends not to give a damn.

Of system, Hamlet does at some point fulfill his son-ly obligation by murdering his uncle, but only following he is previously been fatally poisoned by Laertes’s sword. The transform in Hamlet’s inertia is also the moment of his destruction, symbolically representing the sacrifice of individuality on the altar of the complete. (In case Shakespeare did not fairly get that throughout, he also tends to make Ophelia dedicate suicide following dropping her brain.)

If this just isn’t your strategy of a select-me-higher, you are going to be delighted to flip your attention to the twentieth-century imagining of To Kill a Mockingbird. In accordance to Harper Lee’s characterization of Scout Finch, building into an specific is the truest way to grow to be a operating member of adult modern society.

Whilst Scout has a very strong individuality (not to point out, the amazing gain of remaining Atticus Finch’s daughter), she won’t start out out as an specially strong character. A lot of her knuckle-dusting toughness is simply realized behavior from shelling out too considerably time with an older brother. In addition, irrespective of remaining (rather) culturally enlightened, Scout drops the n-bomb with as considerably simplicity as the future bigot and expresses utter amazement upon recognizing that her black caretaker has a existence, spouse and children, and local community of her very own.

Of system, with out her eventual foray into the imagining, feeling world of nonconformity, Scout wouldn’t be considerably of a protagonist. As she matures, she learns to be extra “ladylike” – not due to the fact her Aunty thinks it is really socially appropriate, but due to the fact she no for a longer time feels the require to react in opposition to a woman stereotype by modeling herself following her significant brother. (Soon after all, irrespective of whether you might be operating in opposition to it or adhering to it, permitting well-liked belief dictate your behavior exhibits a lack of impartial imagining.)

When Atticus agrees to defend Tom Robinson in court docket, Scout witnesses the mindlessness of mob mentality firsthand, as anonymous, faceless guys endeavor to ambush her father in the night time. On an even bigger scale, witnessing the blatant injustice of Tom Robinson’s conviction (and subsequent slaying) opens Scout’s eyes to the blinding energy of group imagining.

Scout’s growth as an impartial thinker is mirrored by the Boo Radley subplot, whereby she learns to substitute nearby legend with her very own special experience. For Scout – and for us luck twenty-first-century folks – coming of age indicates coming into your very own.

Supply by Paul Thomson

Ransford Slater Constitution of Sierra Leone – Hurdles to Constitutional Transform

Numerous elements had appeared to threaten the implementation of the 1924 Constitution. The size of the Legislative Council was step by step greater involving 1963 and 1920. The Government Members for instance, who constituted an autocratic majority on the Legislative Council controlled almost all the powers. Despite the fact that there have been dynamic unofficial like A.J. Shorunkeh-Sawyerr and Samuel (afterwards Sir Samuel) Lewis in the Legislative Council, there have been a number of elements which definitely delayed the advancement of the Legislative Council and Government Councils as certainly consultant institutions1. In other terms, these elements could be rightly viewed as obstacles to the 1924 Constitution.

Colonialism and racism
Colonialism implies dominance, that is, the exploitation of the nationwide passions of a issue by a foreign country. Due to the fact it generally issues foreign desire, race relations are commonly concerned. This political and social method (colonialism) denotes a exclusive relationship involving the imported oligarchy and its issue majority which signifies the nucleus of what George Balandier referred to as la condition colonial (the colonial condition).

An assessment of the colonial period in Sierra Leone from the inception of the Province of Flexibility in 1787 to the period of independence in 1961 reveals that racism and colonialism have been handmaidens, that is, they labored together. The initiatives of Thomas Peters to come to be governor have been thwarted. Despite the fact that a number of elements contributed to the outbreak of the Nova Scotia Rebellion, the point that the working experience of slavery at the arms of the whiteman lingered a deep distrust of whites in authority in the minds of the Nova Scotians should not be disregarded. Even the Maroons emerged from a traumatic working experience battling for liberty for decades. White domination was strengthened with the official imposition of colonial rule in the Colony on 1st January, 1808.

Due to the fact the days of the historic Greeks, some philosophers held the idea that living items on earth advanced from easy to complex sorts. It was, having said that, in the nineteenth century that Charles Darwin, the English naturalist, presented an explanation for the existence of unique types of vegetation and animals and the good reasons for the extinction of some and arrival of other individuals. Due to the fact food stuff provide multiplies slowly and gradually than animals, the latter generally battle to are living. The implication is that all those who survive could assimilate their natural environment superior than all those who perish. The fittest, for that reason, are living to generate an additional generation that is tailored in the very same way. This normal way of range is what Darwin identified as the principal of normal range. The struggle to are living, the survival of the fittest and normal range are thus the 3 suggestions which shaped Darwin’s concept of evolution.two

As Thomson noted, “so a lot had flowed into the Darwinist synthesis that as a lot all over again could be squeezed out of it”.3 His theories (which have been transferred to phylogenetic) received a effective array of converts ranging from politicians like Chamberlain and Hitler to Scoiologists like Spencer and Sumner and all kinds of imperialisits and expansionists in the direction of the conclusion of the previous millennium. It is accurate that Darwin was not a racist but it is equally accurate that “his concept of biological evolution was prolonged to social evolution offering beginning to the Idea of Social Darwinism”4. Social Darwinism, for that reason, (utilised as a philosophical realization for imperialist and racist policies) sustained a pseudo-scientific belief in Aryan or Anglo-Saxon cultural and biological superiority.

The French commenced to communicate about la mission civilisatrice, the Germans Pan-Germanism, the Russians Pan-Slavism and the British In the terms of Rudyard Kilpling) the whiteman’s stress. Despite the fact that the realistically minded Kenneth Stamp rightly noted that “immensely Negroes are immediately after all, only whitemen with blackskins, nothing additional nothing a lot less”5, it was (and is regrettably continue to) accurate that “a lot of Europeans…cherished the flattering idea of innate white superiority this sort of persons could hardly assistance speaking a thing of their perspective to the Africans with whom they arrived into call”6.

Perhaps no one expresses the condition superior or even worse than a supreme racist, Arthur de Gobineau who, while in a lot of terms, evidently stated what a lot of-if most- whites would rapidly endorse. He discovered the negro (who tends to mediocrity in all the things) as the cheapest when rated with its counterpart the yellow and the white. The yellow race, nevertheless top-quality to the negro, he argues, could not generate any civilized modern society. According to him the white race, the most highly developed of the 3, is gifted with reflective energy or rather with an energetic intelligence.7

Racial discrimination or segregation was and is continue to tied up with the whiteman’s faulty and pseudo-scientific conception that the races are unequal. The new imperialism which formulated in the latter element of the nineteenth century altered the initial policy of planning the West African territories for self-governing administration and “the General Act of the Berlin Convention and that of the Brussels Convention delivered the juridical basis for European expansion into the hinterland as very well as for the acquisition on the coast… The coastal area of West Africa was speedily partitioned by the imperial powers immediately after 1885.8

With the advancement of racism and the proclamation of the Protectorate in 1896, a new period dawned on the confront of Sierra Leone. It should not be neglected that the Krios had a fantastic begin around their counterparts in the inside (afterwards the Protectorate) mainly because of the early imposition or importation of western education and learning in the colony. The British recognized that if given the possibility the Krios would confirm their competence and in fact they have been to begin with partners in the administration.

As a final result of the insufficient provide of European manpower, the junior posts have been almost an African monopoly. These posts gave them some insight in the workings of the colonial administration. A.J.G. Wyse in other terms commented that “European appreciation of the abilities of these Africans reached a high point in 1872 when Governor Pope Henessy exulted that there have been adequate capable Krios to swap the whole European personnel”.nine

James C.E. Parkes’ strategy for administering the declared Protectorate was categorically rejected by the Colonial Business office which neglected Pope Hennessy’s assertion by noting that it would be a sensible impossibility to assemble a ample number of skilled Krios In a practical observation, Porter noted that “Cardew who disliked and mistrusted the Creoles, only prolonged a line of policy already agreed on. The occasions of the ten years that followed showed the trend of this policy.”ten

The period of the job open to abilities had handed absent. Discrimination, rather than competence or qualification, was the get of the day. Cardew’s policy of changing Africans with Europeans was ongoing by his predecessors. It is lamentable to observe that in 1900, J.E. Dawson, Assistant Head of Customs was not changed by an African, but rather a European. Immediately after the death of Enoch Faulkner, a Krio African Assistant District Commissioner, in 1908, the colonial administration amalgamated his district at Waterloo with an adjacent one and appointed a European to be successful him. potentially Fyle’s studies make clear the condition superior. As he noted, “Krios step by step dropped their favoured place in the colonial hierarchy. Whilst in 1892, Krios held 18 out of about 40 senior positions by 1912, when these appointments had exceeded ninety, Krios only held fifteen and 5 of these have been abolished in the upcoming five decades.”eleven

The colonial governing administration assumed it in shape to drain a little place from malaria for the English populace in the town. In 1904, Hill Station was picked out as the suitable website and was turned into a reservation for the European populace. This geographical distance was shortly translated into social distance. Hill Station grew to become a badge of superiority. The condition was the very same in the professional medical area. Due to the fact blacks have been deemed innately inferior, most whites disliked being addressed by African medical doctors. It shortly, for that reason, grew to become customary to exclude African medical doctors irrespective of their skills. In 1902, African medical doctors have been excluded from the unified West African Clinical Provider and the Government White Paper Coverage in 1909 publicly proclaimed that “the committee are already strongly of feeling that it is in basic inadvisable to utilize natives of West Africa as professional medical officers in the Government Provider.”twelve

This discriminatory perspective definitely afflicted the quick improvement of the Legislative and Government Councils as certainly consultant establishments. The whitemen in these councils for instance would not have appreciated an African governor. In 1900 unofficial illustration was not greater nevertheless the (Legislative) Council was now dependable for the whole of the Colony and the Protectorate. It was argued that tribal Africans have been not all set for this, and that further Creole illustration was unacceptable to the administration. Not unnaturally, this policy this policy of discrimination which considerably confined possibility gave beginning to a fantastic offer of resentment all through this period.

Divide and rule

Closely tied with discrimination is the policy of divide and rule. By deliberately suffocating the initiatives of the Krios to keep top rated positions in the Protectorate and the Legislative Council and by widening the bridge involving inhabitants of the Colony and Protectorate, the colonial administration was in outcome controlling the diploma of opposition from her topics. It recognized the outcome of unity. By retaining the two administrative models divided, the inhabitants of equally locations will not have a lot time to assault the governing administration as a unified drive. The governing administration wished to protect against that ‘unity’ in politics which was current in Sierra Leone just just before independence when all present political forces or get-togethers amalgamated into a United Front to inquire for the lengthy-awaited independence. Certainly, “notable among the the complications which have generally dominated Sierra Leone politics is one frequently described as the Colony-Protectorate problem.”13 As an alternative of uniting the Colony and Protectorate politically, it is apparent that the declaration of the Protectorate in 1896 divided it culturally and ethnically. It was pretty awkward to find out that, according to the Protectorate Ordinance in 1896, the administration of the Protectorate was to be by Europeans. The majority of the Krios evidently saw that the governing administration, in its place of bridging and cementing, was consciously widening the hole involving the Colony and Protectorate. Formal policy fostered division and tribalism. Chinua Achebe’s Matters Slide Aside is in fact a timeless novel. The Europeans cleverly inserted the wedge and evidently divided Sierra Leoneans who could no longer see on their own as brothers. The decline of the Krios for instance was systematically planned by the colonial administration.

The Prospectus of the Bo College, if everything- reveals the implicit wish of the colonial administration to protect against Protectorate boys from obtaining the variety of education and learning the colony schools delivered. The administration in outcome was stating that it wished to educate ‘yes men’ rather than critics of the governing administration. These Protectorate boys really should not come to be like the Krios. They really should not adhere to the case in point of distinguished gentlemen like Ezzidio or Lewis. They really should obey the powers that be irrespective of the outcome of their actions. To foster division, the colonial administration in a pretty intelligent way argued that equally indigenous pupils and their teachers really should dress in their very own state garments.

In a pretty forceful argument, Marcus Jones shown a number of factors which without doubt lend credence to the view point that it was a acutely aware or deliberate – rather than an accidental- policy of the colonial administration to maintain the Krios of the Colony and the inhabitants of the Protectorate distinctly apart. He observed that no attorneys from the Colony have been permitted to show up in the Courtroom of the Protectorate devoid of exclusive permission even nevertheless a additional lawful method was being released.fourteen

The implication of this policy of divide and rule on the Legislative Council was distinct. The self esteem appreciated by Africans prior to the declaration of the Protectorate was definitely effaced. They grew to become mere advisers whose information in a lot of occasions have been neglected. The Legislative and Government Councils involving 1896 and 1920 for that reason have been mere rubber stamps of governing administration policy. The Protectorate inhabitants have been just dismissed as unqualified gentlemen not nevertheless all set for illustration in the colonial administration and the Krios in the colony (capable gentlemen) have been definitely discriminated against. By retaining these two administrative models divided, the chances of complicated the governing administration have been proficiently minimized. Discrimination and divide and rule have been for that reason two effective obstacles to the improvement of the Legislative and Government Councils as certainly consultant establishments.

The Excellent War (1914-1918)

Consideration should be drawn to an external factor (that is the To start with War) which- even if indirectly- afflicted constitutional improvement in Sierra Leone all through its length. The To start with Entire world War broke the peace that had been meticulously preserved considering the fact that 1815. When it was mostly a European War, it did impact other parts of the globe. Colonial peoples joined the war for many good reasons. This is significant mainly because just just before the war rumblings had been sounded which denoted difficulties to British reign. By 1914, it was distinct that the colonial administration and the Krios have been potential enemies. Having said that, this hostile relationship notwithstanding, all hatchets and grievances have been buried as all and sundry rallied round the British governing administration or rather the British Crown to protect that cherished empire and that gracious Queen.

The implication then is that all political agitation or pressures have been suspended mainly because of the outbreak of the To start with Entire world War. It should be borne in intellect that a number of strain teams had emerged by this period. The Ratepayers’ Affiliation and the Civil Servants’ Affiliation for instance have been among the the other strain teams that set the governing administration on edge. Some Krios had even started off chatting about an group this sort of as the Nationwide Congress of British West Africa. Due to the fact the whole period of the To start with Entire world War was dormant as there was a temporary break in political agitation, the War could rightly be viewed as an impediment to constitutional change or improvement.

The Excellent Discussion

This impediment was largely inside contrary to the To start with Entire world War. The problem was the status of the inhabitants of the Protectorate recognized as the Excellent Discussion. This lawful tussle was an significant and thorny problem. Perusal of the movement of this discussion lays bare two appealing discoveries. To start with, it evidently showed the dynamism of the colony representatives, with a particular reference to Shorunkeh-Sawyerr. 2nd, it uncovered the perspective of the Colonial administration. It is of crucial significance to place this Excellent Discussion in perspective mainly because, among the other items, it threatened the implementation of the 1924 Constitution. By 1922 the composition of the Government Council was the very same as 1863. In other terms, it was continue to an advisory system made up totally by European officials. The Legislative Council was then constituted as follows:
The Governor
Formal Members
The Officer Commanding the Troops
The Colonial Secretary
The Lawyer General
The Colonial Treasurer
The Principal Clinical Officer
Unofficial Members
Three African Members
A single European Member.

It is distinct from the facts mentioned earlier mentioned that equally Councils have been far from being democratic establishments. Having said that, moves for a additional liberal constitution commenced with the assumption of office by R.J. Wilkinson’s successor, Alexander Ransford Slater (afterwards knighted) who arrived in Sierra Leone in 1922. Despite the fact that he ‘identified’ the constitutional trouble, his conclusions have been to a massive extent prejudicial.

The trouble which Slater discovered in Sierra Leone shortly immediately after his arrival was nothing other than the disproportionate harmony involving the numerical size of the two segments which constituted the country’s populace, He observed that there was no illustration from the Protectorate in the Legislative Council which determined its legislation while the Colony which had eighty,000 Africans against the one,350,000 aborigines in the Protectorate had 3 unofficial representatives. Slater dismissed this as “an anomaly of a to some degree evident character”fifteen and he for that reason felt it incumbent on him to make an early research of the problem of a achievable reform of the Legislative Council.

Slater assured the associates of the Legislative Council that he would current his proposed reforms to the Duke of Devonshire. When the Council satisfied all over again on twenty eighth December 1922, Governor Slater informed it that the Duke had already authorized of the enlargement and reconstitution of the Legislative Council of the Colony and Protectorate of Sierra Leone. The Legislative Council was to be enlarged to 20-two associates like the Governor (that is eleven formal and ten unofficial associates). Out of the ten unofficial associates, 3 have been to be elected and 7 nominated. People elected have been to be Colony associates. Of the 7 nominated associates, two have been to be African representatives of the Colony, two Europeans and 3 Paramount Chiefs from the Protectorate. The problem which led to Blyden’s designation (The Excellent Discussion) was the problem of Protectorate illustration on the Council and this ushered in a collection of acrimonious debates in the Legislative Council. A significant research of the trend of occasions in the Legislative Council prior to the implementation of the 1924 Constitution reveals that “there is no doubt that, in law, if not in point, the Creoles of the Colony had a powerful case against the implementation of the proposed constitution…”16 According to the International Jurisdiction Act of 1890, the Protectorate was a foreign territory. The implication then is that its inhabitants are aliens who had no business enterprise in the Legislative Council of the Colony.

In Slater’s view, the press of the day furnished the general public with fake facts. According to the Press, the Protectorate was continue to in its embryonic phase to receive immediate illustration and the so-identified as change was a fictional thought compelled on chiefs. Right before the declaration of the Protectorate in 1896, Governor Cardew observed that all through his excursions the chiefs favoured the thought of a Protectorate. Almost a quarter of a century afterwards, Slater far too claimed to have visited the chiefs who favoured illustration. He noted that in his current excursions, the chiefs on their own requested for immediate illustration on the the Legislative Council. Commenting further on the problem, Slater argued forcefully that “immediate illustration would be inadvisable if there have been no acceptable chiefs to be representatives but this was not the case. I am contented from my individual working experience all through my excursions in the Protectorate, and from facts that there do exist in every single of the Provinces, Paramount Chiefs who can adequately comprehend and specific their opinions on matters this sort of as we look at in this area”.17

Shorunkeh-Sawyerr- an exceptionally gifted male with fantastic sensitivity- was the Senior unofficial member of the Legislative Council all through the period of the Excellent Discussion. It would have been fantastic for a racist like Sir Richard Burton- who once noted that “the negro in mass will not create outside of a sure point and that not respectable”18 to have been current in the Legislative Council when unofficial associates (specifically Shorunkeh-Sawyerr) took the colonial governing administration to undertaking with seem arguments. The colony politicians based their opposition on a number of grounds. They believed that the Protectorate was not far too highly developed for illustration. Bringing then Provincial Commissioners and Chiefs to the very same council will weaken Protectorate illustration in its place of buttressing it simply mainly because of the relationship of subordination and domination involving the chiefs and their bosses, the Provincial Commissioners.

Bringing these ‘yes men’ of the administration into the Legislative Council was a intelligent way to raise supporters of the governing administration. But Shorunkeh-Sawyerr was definitely bewildered. There have been a number of issues he necessary clarification on, the most significant being the actual or true status of the inhabitants of the Protectorate.

It would be authentic to infer that Shorunkeh-Sawyerr was likely right in this quest. A single of the burning issues which had occur on and off in problem considering the fact that the declaration of the Protectorate in 1896 was the political status of the natives occupying these territories. In the area of 7 decades (1916-1923), 3 Crown Law Officers gave their candid opinions on the problem. The opinions of two of these- nevertheless unequivocal- have been divergent and that of the third was intermediate. The implication these controversial opinions had was that the problem was in want of a satisfactory explanation. Minor ponder then that Shorunkeh-Sawyerr termed them as aliens- and aliens they definitely have been.

The International Jurisdiction Act of 1890 declared the Protectorate a foreign territory which meant that its inhabitants far too have been foreigners or aliens. Right before proceeding, one should definitely problem the doubtful character of the colonial policy. When the Bo College was shaped, it was meant for the sons and nominees of chiefs and the boys really should be given an education and learning totally unique from that which the Krios obtained. Before long immediately after the punctuation of the Bai Bureh Rebellion, the British have been engaged in the pacification method, that is, the suppression of all resistant movements. The colonial governing administration arranged a Protectorate march all through which its troopers shown their sophisticated weapons to show the persons how powerful the governing administration drive was and to frighten them to come to be pusillanimous as far as battling or complicated the administration all over again was concerned. As Fyle noted, “immediately after the war of liberty of 1898, the Sierra Leone hinterland settled down to a uninteresting acceptance of British rule”.19 Rulers like Madam Yoko, Nancy Tucker of Bagru and D.F. Wilberforce who have been favourable to the British have been chosen to come to be Paramount Chiefs. Chiefs suspected to have been disloyal have been both deposed or exiled, for case in point, the fantastic Kebalai (Bai Bureh) of Kasse and Nyagua of Panguma.

The implication below is that Paramount Chiefs will generally strive to preserve the goodwill of the British rather than cultivate the aid of the persons. By 1922, equally chiefs and their persons have been diametrically apart and the former could not be appropriate representatives of the latter. The inclusion of chiefs who neglect the wishes of their persons will for that reason make the Legislative Council unrepresentative. Neither the governor nor the Acting Lawyer-General could encourage Shorunkeh-Sawyerr that the Protectorate inhabitants have been British topics. Shorunkey-Sawyerr’s ask for for annexation was encouraged by the very similar condition in the Gold Coast Colony. He was in fact sure that this would absolutely materialize in the in the vicinity of upcoming and definitely tried out to avert the lawful challenges concerned. He was among the one of the pretty first Sierra Leoneans to argue for annexation and it is fairly for that reason to notice that the Krios have been not automatically against the inclusion of the protectorate into the council.

It appeared as if Shorunkeh-Sawyerr was chaotic counting the stars in the sky in a brilliant night time. The Governor’s intellect was set. He had assumed of reconstitution and its class just before arriving in Sierra Leone and his intellect was almost shut. Maybe he erroneously assumed that the Chiefs in the Protectorate area have been on a par with their Gold Coast counterparts. This around simplication was far too deceptive. According to formal feeling, the Protectorate inhabitants could consider the Oath of Allegiance which is the key precedent to be a member of the Council. Having said that, it would show up as if formal policy wished to hold off the thought of annexation considering the fact that Governor Slater observed that this sort of a ask for should occur from Protectorate inhabitants on their own.

A shut glance at the Excellent Discussion reveals that even the British have been not far too sure irrespective of whether it was definitely correct to have the Protectorate representatives in the Legislative Council. It definitely magnified the perspective of the colonial administration. A single sees traces of racism. The thought of race is tied up with the pseudo-scientific conception of the inequality of the races or even worse continue to, the superiority of European lifestyle. Due to the fact the blackman was believed to be at the foot of the human tree of evolution, he should take the ‘fact’ that the whiteman is pretty intelligent and generally right. There was for that reason that usual ‘jumble obstinacy’ not to generate to the brilliant and authentic argument of the Africans all through this Excellent Discussion.

The colonial administration gave a blind eye to the validity of Shorunkeh-Sawyerr’s plea for annexation and rather uncovered all kinds of ‘rationalization’ to justify their policy.

Sad to say, the Committee of Educated Aborigines (a Protectorate Group) gullibly approved Governor Slater’s place of nevertheless which unrealistically attributed the relative backwardness of the Protectorate to the selfishness of the Colony. These types of tendencious statements have been not only silly or gratuitously provocative but have been also a hotchpotch of throroughly evil nonsense. Newspaper experiences show that – if everything- there have been cries for Protectorate illustration in the Legislative Council. In the nineteenth century, Sir David Chalmers turned down Samuel (afterwards Sir Samuel) Lewis’ cry for Protectorate illustration in the Legislative Council. The assertion for that reason that the colony persons have been totally against Protectorate illustration should not be in a blind fashion. Shorunkeh-Sawyerr cleared this point in one of his speeches. He was not against protectorate illustration. The colony lifted eyebrows mainly because of the fashion of Protectorate illustration. It was distinct that by 1924, the Paramount Chiefs have been all certainly gentlemen of the governing administration. As mentioned earlier mentioned, this condition was carved immediately after the conclusion of the Bai Bureh Rebellion (1898) when so-identified as ‘disloyal’ chiefs have been both exiled or deposed and loyal kinds retained or mounted.

It was distinct that the associates of the Committee of Training Aborigines who felt that the ‘anomaly’ should be corrected represented only a part of the Protectorate. They have been all northerners and their key motive was to foster protectorate issues.

It was for that reason distinct that the policy of the colonial governing administration was bias and once it had been laid down, no volume of goal assessment by colony Africans in Sierra Leone could change it. It is for that reason not astonishing that at the recommendation of Governor Slater, the moot problem was withdrawn. Deveneaux’s comment on colonial policy was an correct one. He commented thus, “the recommendation that colonial policy was formulated in London and sent abroad…describes the condition in the nineteenth century (and also twentieth century) Sierra Leone. Undeniably, this conclusion in London was frequently last….”twenty

As already mentioned, this Excellent Discussion should be place into perspective mainly because it definitely ‘threatened’ the implementation of the 1924 Ransford Slater Constitution. The administration would not generate to the recommendation of Shorunkeh-Sawyerr, having said that legitimate it was. The conclusion of the Excellent Discussion also coincided with the punctuation of the everyday living of that archaic or historic Legislative Council which had served the colony of Sierra Leone for around a millennium.


one. Edward Blyden III, “The pattern of constitutional change in Sierra Leone, 1924-1951), unpublished Ph.D. thesis, Harvard, 1975, p.127
two. Walter T. Wallbank, Record and Everyday living, (Illinois: Scott, Foreman and Firm, 1977), p.487
3. David Thomson, Europe considering the fact that Napoleon, (Norfolk: Lowe and Brydone Printers Ltd, 1957), p.257
4. The New Encyclopaedia Britannica Vol.27, s.v. “Social Darwinism”, p.339
5. Kenneth Stamp, The Peculiar Establishment, (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1956), p.3
6. Gustav Jahoda, Whiteman, (London: Oxford University Press, 1961), p.113
7. Howard M. Bahr, Bruce A. Chadwick, Joseph H. Stauss, American Ethnicity, (Massachusetts: D.C. Heath & Co., 1979), pp.128-129
8. Boniface Obichere, West African states and European expansion, (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1971), p.245
nine. A.J.G. Wyse, “The Krios of Sierra Leone-Of British imperial overrule?”, p4
ten. Arthur Porter, Creoledom, (London: Oxford University Press, 1963), p.61
eleven. Cecil M. Fyle, The heritage of Sierra Leone, (London: Evans Brothers Ltd., 1981), hundred ten
twelve. Christopher Fyfe, Sierra Leone Inheritance, ed. (London: Oxford University Press, 1964), p.262
13. Gershon Collier, Sierra Leone: experiment in democracy in an African country, (New York: New York University Press, 1970), p.nine
fourteen. W.S. Marcus Jones, “Lawful improvement and constitutional change in Sierra Leone, 1787-1971”, unpublished manuscript, pp.260-261
fifteen. Sierra Leone Legislative Council Debates (henceforth ‘Debates’), 1922-23, Sierra Leone Community Archives, Fourah Bay College or university, p.6
16. Blyden, op.cit., p.128
17. Debates, No.II, 1922-23, p.6
18. Sir Richard Burton: cited in Journal of the Royal African Modern society, Vol.70, p.240
19. Cecil M. Fyle, Alimamy Suluku of Sierra Leone (London: Evans Brothers Ltd., 1979), p.52
twenty. Deveneaux, op.cit., p.47

Resource by Oliver Harding

The Development of Old Age and Related Issues

In traditional Chinese and other Asian cultures the aged were highly respected and cared for. The Igabo tribesmen of Eastern Nigeria value dependency in their aged and involve them in care of children and the administration of tribal affairs (Shelton, A. in Kalish R. Uni Michigan 1969).

In Eskimo culture the grandmother was pushed out into the ice-flow to die as soon as she became useless.

Western societies today usually resemble to some degree the Eskimo culture, only the “ice-flows” have names such a “Sunset Vista” and the like. Younger generations no longer assign status to the aged and their abandonment

is always in danger of becoming the social norm.

There has been a tendency to remove the aged from their homes and put them  in custodial care. To some degree the government provides domiciliary care services to prevent or delay this, but the motivation probably has more

to do with expense than humanity.

In Canada and some parts of the USA old people are being utilised as foster-grandparents in child care agencies.


What is Aging?

Aging: Aging is a natural phenomenon that refers to changes occurring throughout the life span and result in differences in structure and function between the youthful and elder generation.

Gerontology: Gerontology is the study of aging and includes science, psychology and sociology.

Geriatrics: A relatively new field of medicine specialising in the health problems of advanced age.

Social aging: Refers to the social habits and roles of individuals with respect to their culture and society. As social aging increases individual usually experience a decrease in meaningful social interactions.

Biological aging: Refers to the physical changes in the body systems during the later decades of life. It may begin long before the individual  reaches chronological age 65.

Cognitive aging: Refers to decreasing ability to assimilate new information and learn new behaviours and skills.


Eric Erikson (Youth and the life cycle. Children. 7:43-49 Mch/April 1960) developed an “ages and stages” theory of human

development that involved 8 stages after birth each of which involved a basic dichotomy representing best case and worst case outcomes. Below are the dichotomies and their developmental relevance:

Prenatal stage – conception to birth.

1. Infancy. Birth to 2 years – basic trust vs. basic distrust. Hope.

2. Early childhood, 3 to 4 years – autonomy vs. self doubt/shame. Will.

3. Play age, 5 to 8 years – initiative vs. guilt. Purpose.

4. School age, 9to 12 – industry vs. inferiority. Competence.

5. Adolescence, 13 to 19 – identity vs. identity confusion. Fidelity.

6. Young adulthood – intimacy vs. isolation. Love.

7. Adulthood, generativity vs. self absorption. Care.

8. Mature age- Ego Integrity vs. Despair. Wisdom.

This stage of older adulthood, i.e. stage 8, begins about the time of retirement and continues throughout one’s life. Achieving ego integrity  is a sign of maturity while failing to reach this stage is an indication of poor development in prior stages through the life course.

Ego integrity: This means coming to accept one’s whole life and reflecting on it in a positive manner. According to Erikson, achieving

integrity means fully accepting one’ self and coming to terms with death. Accepting responsibility for one’s life and being able to review

the past with satisfaction is essential. The inability to do this leads to despair and the individual will begin to fear death. If a favourable balance is achieved during this stage, then wisdom is developed.

Psychological and personality aspects:

Aging has psychological implications. Next to dying our recognition that we are aging may be one of the most profound shocks we ever receive. Once we pass the invisible line of 65 our years are bench marked for the remainder of the game of life. We are no longer “mature age” we are instead classified as “old”, or “senior citizens”. How we cope with the changes we face and stresses of altered status depends on our basic personality. Here are 3 basic personality types that have been identified. It may be a oversimplification but it makes the point about personality effectively:

a. The autonomous – people who seem to have the resources for self-renewal. They may be dedicated to a goal or idea and committed to continuing productivity. This appears to protect them somewhat even against physiological aging.

b.The adjusted – people who are rigid and lacking in adaptability but are supported by their power, prestige or well structured routine. But if their situation changes drastically they become psychiatric casualties.

c.The anomic. These are people who do not have clear inner values or a protective life vision. Such people have been described as prematurely resigned and they may deteriorate rapidly.

Summary of stresses of old age.

a. Retirement and reduced income. Most people rely on work for self worth, identity and social interaction. Forced retirement can be demoralising.

b. Fear of invalidism and death. The increased probability of falling prey to illness from which there is no recovery is a continual

source of anxiety. When one has a heart attack or stroke the stress becomes much worse.

Some persons face death with equanimity, often psychologically supported by a religion or philosophy. Others may welcome death as an end to suffering or insoluble problems and with little concern for life or human existence. Still others face impending death with suffering of great stress against which they have no ego defenses.

c. Isolation and loneliness. Older people face inevitable loss of loved ones, friends and contemporaries. The loss of a spouse whom one has depended on for companionship and moral support is particularly distressing. Children grow up, marry and become preoccupied or move away. Failing memory, visual and aural impairment may all work to make social interaction difficult. And if this

then leads to a souring of outlook and rigidity of attitude then social interaction becomes further lessened and the individual may not even utilise the avenues for social activity that are still available.

d. Reduction in sexual function and physical attractiveness. Kinsey et al, in their Sexual behaviour in the human male,

(Phil., Saunders, 1948) found that there is a gradual decrease in sexual activity with advancing age and that reasonably gratifying patterns of sexual activity can continue into extreme old age. The aging person also has to adapt to loss of sexual attractiveness in a society which puts extreme emphasis on sexual attractiveness. The adjustment in self image and self concept that are required can be very hard to make.

e. Forces tending to self devaluation. Often the experience of the older generation has little perceived relevance to the problems of the young and the older person becomes deprived of participation in decision making both in occupational and family settings. Many parents are seen as unwanted burdens and their children may secretly wish they would die so they can be free of the burden and experience some financial relief or benefit. Senior citizens may be pushed into the role of being an old person with all this implies in terms of self devaluation.

4 Major Categories of Problems or Needs:



Income maintenance.

Interpersonal relations.


Physiological Changes: Catabolism (the breakdown of protoplasm) overtakes anabolism (the build-up of protoplasm). All body systems are affected and repair systems become slowed. The aging process occurs at different rates in different individuals.

Physical appearance and other changes:

Loss of subcutaneous fat and less elastic skin gives rise to wrinkled appearance, sagging and loss of smoothness of body contours. Joints stiffen and become painful and range of joint movement becomes restricted, general

mobility lessened.

Respiratory changes:

Increase of fibrous tissue in chest walls and lungs leads restricts respiratory movement and less oxygen is consumed. Older people more likelyto have lower respiratory infections whereas young people have upper respiratory infections.

Nutritive changes:

Tooth decay and loss of teeth can detract from ease and enjoyment in eating. Atrophy of the taste buds means food is inclined to be tasteless and this should be taken into account by carers. Digestive changes occur from lack of exercise (stimulating intestines) and decrease in digestive juice production. Constipation and indigestion are likely to follow as a result. Financial problems can lead to the elderly eating an excess of cheap carbohydrates rather than the more expensive protein and vegetable foods and this exacerbates the problem, leading to reduced vitamin intake and such problems as anemia and increased susceptibility to infection.

Adaptation to stress:

All of us face stress at all ages. Adaptation to stress requires the consumption of energy. The 3 main phases of stress are:

1. Initial alarm reaction. 2. Resistance. 3. Exhaustion

and if stress continues tissue damage or aging occurs. Older persons have had a lifetime of dealing with stresses. Energy reserves are depleted and the older person succumbs to stress earlier than the younger person. Stress is cumulative over a lifetime. Research results, including experiments with animals suggests that each stress leaves us more vulnerable to the next and that although we might think we’ve “bounced back” 100% in fact each stress leaves it scar. Further, stress is psycho-biological meaning

the kind of stress is irrelevant. A physical stress may leave one more vulnerable to psychological stress and vice versa. Rest does not completely restore one after a stressor. Care workers need to be mindful of this and cognizant of the kinds of things that can produce stress for aged persons.

COGNITIVE CHANGE Habitual Behaviour:

Sigmund Freud noted that after the age of 50, treatment of neuroses via psychoanalysis was difficult because the opinions and reactions of older people were relatively fixed and hard to shift.

Over-learned behaviour: This is behaviour that has been learned so well and repeated so often that it has become automatic, like for example typing or running down stairs. Over-learned behaviour is hard to change. If one has lived a long time one is likely to have fixed opinions and ritualised behaviour patterns or habits.

Compulsive behaviour: Habits and attitudes that have been learned in the course of finding ways to overcome frustration and difficulty are very hard to break. Tension reducing habits such as nail biting, incessant humming, smoking or drinking alcohol are especially hard to change at any age and particularly hard for persons who have been practising them over a life time.

The psychology of over-learned and compulsive behaviours has severe implications for older persons who find they have to live in what for them is a new and alien environment with new rules and power relations.

Information acquisition:

Older people have a continual background of neural noise making it more difficult for them to sort out and interpret complex sensory

input. In talking to an older person one should turn off the TV, eliminate as many noises and distractions as possible, talk slowly

and relate to one message or idea at a time.

Memories from the distant past are stronger than more recent memories. New memories are the first to fade and last to return.

Time patterns also can get mixed – old and new may get mixed.


Intelligence reaches a peak and can stay high with little deterioration if there is no neurological damage. People who have unusually high intelligence to begin with seem to suffer the least decline. Education and stimulation also seem to play a role in maintaining intelligence.

Intellectual impairment. Two diseases of old age causing cognitive decline are Alzheimer’s syndrome and Pick’s syndrome. In Pick’s syndrome there is inability to concentrate and learn and also affective responses are impaired.

Degenerative Diseases: Slow progressive physical degeneration of cells in the nervous system. Genetics appear to be an important factor. Usually start after age 40 (but can occur as early as 20s).

ALZHEIMER’S DISEASE Degeneration of all areas of cortex but particularly frontal and temporal lobes. The affected cells actually die. Early symptoms resemble neurotic disorders: Anxiety, depression, restlessness sleep difficulties.

Progressive deterioration of all intellectual faculties (memory deficiency being the most well known and obvious). Total mass of the brain decreases, ventricles become larger. No established treatment.

PICK’S DISEASE Rare degenerative disease. Similar to Alzheimer’s in terms of onset, symptomatology and possible genetic

aetiology. However it affects circumscribed areas of the brain, particularly the frontal areas which leads to a loss of normal affect.

PARKINSON’S DISEASE Neuropathology: Loss of neurons in the basal ganglia.

Symptoms: Movement abnormalities: rhythmical alternating tremor of extremities, eyelids and tongue along with rigidity of the muscles and slowness of movement (akinesia).

It was once thought that Parkinson’s disease was not associated with intellectual deterioration, but it is now known that there is an association between global intellectual impairment and Parkinson’s where it occurs late in life.

The cells lost in Parkinson’s are associated with the neuro-chemical Dopamine and the motor symptoms of Parkinson’s are associated the dopamine deficiency. Treatment involves administration of dopamine precursor L-dopa which can alleviate symptoms including intellectual impairment. Research suggests it may possibly bring to the fore emotional effects in patients who have had

psychiatric illness at some prior stage in their lives.

AFFECTIVE DOMAIN In old age our self concept gets its final revision. We make a final assessment of the value of our lives and our balance of success and failures.

How well a person adapts to old age may be predicated by how well the person adapted to earlier significant changes. If the person suffered an emotional crisis each time a significant change was needed then adaptation to the exigencies of old age may also be difficult. Factors such as economic security, geographic location and physical health are important to the adaptive process.

Need Fulfilment: For all of us, according to Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs theory, we are not free to pursue the higher needs of self actualisation unless the basic needs are secured. When one considers that many, perhaps most, old people are living in poverty and continually concerned with basic survival needs, they are not likely to be happily satisfying needs related to prestige, achievement and beauty.

Maslow’s Hierarchy



Belonging, love, identification

Esteem: Achievement, prestige, success, self respect

Self actualisation: Expressing one’s interests and talents to the full.

Note: Old people who have secured their basic needs may be motivated to work on tasks of the highest levels in the hierarchy – activities concerned with aesthetics, creativity and altruistic matters, as compensation for loss of sexual attractiveness and athleticism. Aged care workers fixated on getting old people to focus on social activities may only succeed in frustrating and irritating them if their basic survival concerns are not secured to their satisfaction.


Social aging according to Cumming, E. and Henry, W. (Growing old: the aging process of disengagement, NY, Basic 1961) follows a well defined pattern:

1. Change in role. Change in occupation and productivity. Possibly change

in attitude to work.

2. Loss of role, e.g. retirement or death of a husband.

3. Reduced social interaction. With loss of role social interactions are

diminished, eccentric adjustment can further reduce social interaction, damage

to self concept, depression.

4. Awareness of scarcity of remaining time. This produces further curtailment of

activity in interest of saving time.

Havighurst, R. et al (in B. Neugarten (ed.) Middle age and aging, U. of Chicago, 1968) and others have suggested that disengagement is not an inevitable process. They believe the needs of the old are essentially the same as in middle age and the activities of middle age should be extended as long as possible. Havighurst points out the decrease in social interaction of the aged is often largely the

result of society withdrawing from the individual as much as the reverse. To combat this he believes the individual must vigorously resist the limitations of his social world.

DEATH The fear of the dead amongst tribal societies is well established. Persons who had ministered to the dead were taboo and required observe various rituals including seclusion for varying periods of time. In some societies from South America to Australia it is taboo for certain persons to utter the name of the dead. Widows and widowers are expected to observe rituals in respect for the dead.

Widows in the Highlands of New Guinea around Goroka chop of one of their own fingers. The dead continue their existence as spirits and upsetting them can bring dire consequences.

Wahl, C in “The fear of death”, 1959 noted that the fear of death occurs as early as the 3rd year of life. When a child loses a pet or grandparent fears reside in the unspoken questions: Did I cause it? Will happen to you (parent) soon? Will this happen to me? The child in such situations needs to re-assure that the departure is not a censure, and that the parent is not likely to depart soon. Love, grief, guilt, anger are a mix of conflicting emotions that are experienced.


Our culture places high value on youth, beauty, high status occupations, social class and anticipated future activities and achievement. Aging and dying are denied and avoided in this system. The death of each person reminds us of our own mortality.

The death of the elderly is less disturbing to members of Western society because the aged are not especially valued. Surveys have established that nurses for example attach more importance to saving a young life than an old life. In Western society there is a pattern of avoiding dealing with the aged and dying aged patient.

Stages of dying. Elisabeth Kubler Ross has specialised in working with dying patients and in her “On death and dying”, NY, Macmillan, 1969, summarised 5 stages in dying.

1. Denial and isolation. “No, not me”.

2. Anger. “I’ve lived a good life so why me?”

3. Bargaining. Secret deals are struck with God. “If I can live until…I promise to…”

4. Depression. (In general the greatest psychological problem of the aged is depression). Depression results from real and threatened loss.

5. Acceptance of the inevitable.

Kubler Ross’s typology as set out above should, I believe be taken with a grain of salt and not slavishly accepted. Celebrated US Journalist David Rieff who was in June ’08 a guest of the Sydney writer’s festival in relation to his book, “Swimming in a sea of death: a son’s memoir” (Melbourne University Press) expressly denied the validity of the Kubler Ross typology in his Late Night Live interview (Australian ABC radio) with Philip Adams June 9th ’08. He said something to the effect that his mother had regarded her impending death as murder. My own experience with dying persons suggests that the human ego is extraordinarily resilient. I recall visiting a dying colleague in hospital just days before his death. He said, “I’m dying, I don’t like it but there’s nothing I can do about it”, and then went on to chortle about how senior academics at an Adelaide university had told him they were submitting his name for a the Order of Australia (the new “Knighthood” replacement in Australia). Falling in and out of lucid thought with an oxygen tube in his nostrils he was nevertheless still highly interested in the “vain glories of the world”. This observation to me seemed consistent with Rieff’s negative assessment of Kubler Ross’s theories.


The aged share with the young the same needs: However, the aged often have fewer or weaker resources to meet those needs. Their need for social interaction may be ignored by family and care workers.

Family should make time to visit their aged members and invite them to their homes. The aged like to visit children and relate to them through games and stories.

Meaningful relationships can be developed via foster-grandparent programs. Some aged are not aware of their income and health entitlements. Family and friends should take the time to explain these. Some aged are too proud to access their entitlements and this problem should be addressed in a kindly way where it occurs.

It is best that the aged be allowed as much choice as possible in matters related to living arrangements, social life and lifestyle.

Communities serving the aged need to provide for the aged via such things as lower curbing, and ramps.

Carers need to examine their own attitude to aging and dying. Denial in the carer is detected by the aged person and it can inhibit the aged person from expressing negative feelings – fear, anger. If the person can express these feelings to someone then that person is less likely to die with a sense of isolation and bitterness.


The following notes are my interpretation of a Dr. Depak Chopra lecture entitled, “The New Physics of Healing” which he presented to the 13th Scientific Conference of the American Holistic Medical Association. Dr. Depak Chopra is an endocrinologist and a former Chief of Staff of New England Hospital, Massachusetts. I am deliberately omitting the detail of his explanations of the more abstract, ephemeral and controversial ideas.

Original material from 735 Walnut Street, Boulder, Colorado 83002,

Phone. +303 449 6229.

In the lecture Dr. Chopra presents a model of the universe and of all organisms as structures of interacting centres of electromagnetic energy linked to each other in such a way that anything affecting one part of a system or structure has ramifications throughout the entire structure. This model becomes an analogue not only for what happens within the structure or organism itself, but between the organism and both its physical and social environments. In other words there is a correlation between psychological

conditions, health and the aging process. Dr. Chopra in his lecture reconciles ancient Vedic (Hindu) philosophy with modern psychology and quantum physics.

Premature Precognitive Commitment: Dr. Chopra invokes experiments that have shown that flies kept for a long time in a jar do not quickly leave the jar when the top is taken off. Instead they accept the jar as the limit of their universe. He also points out that in India baby elephants are often kept tethered to a small twig or sapling. In adulthood when the elephant is capable of pulling over a medium sized tree it can still be successfully tethered to a twig! As another example he points to experiments in which fish are bred on

2 sides of a fish tank containing a divider between the 2 sides. When the divider is removed the fish are slow to learn that they can now swim throughout the whole tank but rather stay in the section that they accept as their universe. Other experiments have demonstrated that kittens brought up in an environment of vertical stripes and structures, when released in adulthood keep bumping into anything aligned horizontally as if they were unable to see anything that is horizontal. Conversely kittens brought up in an environment of horizontal stripes when released bump into vertical structures, apparently unable to see them.

The whole point of the above experiments is that they demonstrate Premature Precognitive Commitment. The lesson to be learned is that our sensory apparatus develops as a result of initial experience and how we’ve been taught to interpret it.

What is the real look of the world? It doesn’t exist. The way the world looks to us is determined by the sensory receptors we have and our interpretation of that look is determined by our premature precognitive commitments. Dr Chopra makes the point that less than a billionth of the available stimuli make it into our nervous systems. Most of it is screened, and what gets through to us is whatever we are

expecting to find on the basis of our precognitive commitments.

Dr. Chopra also discusses the diseases that are actually caused by mainstream medical interventions, but this material gets too far away from my central intention. Dr. Chopra discusses in lay terms the physics of matter, energy and time by way of establishing the wider context of our existence. He makes the point that our bodies including the bodies of plants are mirrors of cosmic rhythms and exhibit changes correlating even with the tides.

Dr. Chopra cites the experiments of Dr. Herbert Spencer of the US National Institute of Health. He injected mice with Poly-IC, an immuno-stimulant while making the mice repeatedly smell camphor. After the effect of the Poly-IC had worn off he again exposed the mice to the camphor smell. The smell of camphor had the effect of causing the mice’s immune system to automatically strengthen

as if they had been injected with the stimulant. He then took another batch of mice and injected them with cyclophosphamide which tends to destroy the immune system while exposing them to the smell of camphor. Later after being returned to normal just the smell of camphor was enough to cause destruction of their immune system. Dr. Chopra points out that whether or not camphor enhanced or

destroyed the mice’s immune system was entirely determined by an interpretation of the meaning of the smell of camphor. The interpretation is not just in the brain but in each cell of the organism. We are bound to our imagination and our

early experiences.

Chopra cites a study by the Massachusetts Dept of Health Education and Welfare into risk factors for heart disease – family history, cholesterol etc. The 2 most important risk factors were found to be psychological measures – Self  Happiness Rating and Job Satisfaction. They found most people died of heart disease on a Monday!

Chopra says that for every feeling there is a molecule. If you are experiencing tranquillity your body will be producing natural valium. Chemical changes in the brain are reflected by changes in other cells including blood cells. The brain produces neuropeptides and brain structures are chemically tuned to these neuropeptide receptors. Neuropeptides (neurotransmitters) are the chemical concommitants of thought. Chopra points out the white blood cells (a part of the immune system) have neuropeptide receptors and are “eavesdropping” on our thinking. Conversely the immune system produces its own neuropeptides which can influence the nervous system. He goes on to say that cells in all parts of the body including heart and kidneys for example also produce neuropeptides and

neuropeptide sensitivity. Chopra assures us that most neurologists would agree that the nervous system and the immune system are parallel systems.

Other studies in physiology: The blood interlukin-2 levels of medical students decreased as exam time neared and their interlukin receptor capacities also lowered. Chopra says if we are having fun to the point of exhilaration our natural interlukin-2 levels become higher. Interlukin-2 is a powerful and very expensive anti-cancer drug. The body is a printout of consciousness. If we could change the way we look at our bodies at a genuine, profound level then our bodies would actually change.

On the subject of “time” Chopra cites Sir Thomas Gall and Steven Hawkins, stating that our description of the universe as having a past, present, and future are constructed entirely out of our interpretation of change. But in

reality linear time doesn’t exist.

Chopra explains the work of Alexander Leaf a former Harvard Professor of Preventative Medicine who toured the world investigating societies where people  lived beyond 100 years (these included parts of Afghanistan, Soviet Georgia, Southern Andes). He looked at possible factors including climate, genetics, and diet. Leaf concluded the most important factor was the collective perception of aging in these societies.

Amongst the Tama Humara of the Southern Andes there was a collective belief that the older you got the more physically able you got. They had a tradition of running and the older one became then generally the better at running one got. The best runner was aged 60. Lung capacity and other measures actually improved with age. People were healthy until well into their 100s and died in their sleep. Chopra remarks that things have changed since the introduction of Budweiser (beer) and TV.

[DISCUSSION: How might TV be a factor in changing the former ideal state of things?]

Chopra refers to Dr. Ellen Langor a former Harvard Psychology professor’s work. Langor advertised for 100 volunteers aged over 70 years. She took them to a Monastery outside Boston to play “Let’s Pretend”. They were divided into 2 groups each of which resided in a different part of the building. One group, the control group spent several days talking about the 1950s. The other group, the experimental group had to live as if in the year 1959 and talk about it in the present tense. What appeared on their TV screens were the old newscasts and movies. They read old newspapers and magazines of the period. After 3 days everyone was photographed and the photographs judged by independent judges who knew nothing of the nature of the experiment. The experimental group seemed to

have gotten younger in appearance. Langor then arranged for them to be tested for 100 physiological parameters of aging which included of course blood pressure, near point vision and DHEA levels. After 10 days of living as if in 1959 all parameters had reversed by the equivalent of at least 20 years.

Chopra concludes from Langor’s experiment: “We are the metabolic end product of our sensory experiences. How we interpret them depends on the collective mindset which influences individual biological entropy and aging.”

Can one escape the current collective mindset and reap the benefits in longevity and health? Langor says, society won’t let you escape. There are too many reminders of how most people think linear time is and how it expresses itself in entropy and aging – men are naughty at 40 and on social welfare at 55, women reach menopause at 40 etc. We get to see so many other people aging and dying that it sets the pattern that we follow.

Chopra concludes we are the metabolic product of our sensory experience and our interpretation gets structured in our biology itself. Real change comes from change in the collective consciousness – otherwise it cannot occur within the individual.


Chopra, D. The New Physics of Healing. 735 Walnut Street, Boulder, Colorado 83002,

Phone. +303 449 6229.

Coleman, J. C. Abnormal psychology and modern life. Scott Foresman & Co.

Lugo, J. and Hershey, L. Human development a multidisciplinary approach to the psychology of individual growth, NY, Macmillan.

Dennis. Psychology of human behaviour for nurses. Lond. W. B.Saunders.

Source by Victor Barnes

How Electricity Corrupts in Coronary heart of Darkness, the Crucible, and the Wonderful Gatsby

Given the brutal character of human background, it is no shock we have a indicating that complete power corrupts unquestionably just request the nine-fingered Frodo Baggins. The concept arrives up as routinely in literature as it does on the news, daring us to imagine irrespective of whether we’d act any otherwise in the similar predicament.

A vintage illustration can be uncovered in Joseph Conrad’s novel Coronary heart of Darkness, which follows Charlie Marlow’s journey by way of the colonial Congo in lookup of a renegade ivory trader named Mr. Kurtz. However as soon as a respected businessman, Kurtz is intoxicated by what he perceives to be a savage wilderness full of ignorant impressionable natives. Creating the most of his position as a white European outsider, Kurtz reinvents himself as a god amid the Congolese.

In spite of the simple fact that they end result is anything at all but very (unless of course you’ve got usually dreamed of proudly owning a jungle fortress total with impaled heads), Marlow finds himself intrigued and even amazed by Kurtz’s animal magnetism and wild abandon. Marlow eventually completes his mission and returns to prim and correct England, but his ambiguous thoughts toward the psychopath leaves us thinking irrespective of whether he would have fared any improved in Kurtz shoes.

Just one complicating component in Coronary heart of Darkness is that the two Kurtz and Marlow are well-to-do, white, male Europeans who perceive by themselves as the cream of the human crop. In this feeling, they are the two by now in positions of immense power – as far as nineteenth century politics are worried. To get a far more well-rounded viewpoint, let’s acquire a look at some corruptible figures whose station in life just isn’t rather so peachy.

Remaining a youthful, single female in sixteenth-century Puritan New England won’t be able to have been a barrel of laughs, but as Arthur Miller’s The Crucible exhibits us, there were being particular cards a woman could participate in. Soon after acquiring caught dancing in the forest at evening, many of Salem’s youthful ladies find by themselves accused of working with the devil. Because of the absurdity of their criminal justice process, they have no decision but to confess to witchcraft in get to escape punishment.

Not written content to simply help you save their hides, even so, the ladies make the most of their instant in the highlight by lashing out in opposition to the group that implicated them listing off supposed accomplices, they provide prices in opposition to rivals, nay-sayers, and anyone who comes about to give them the stink eye. The accusations spiral out of manage until eventually dozens of townspeople are dead, imprisoned, or forever humiliated. The needlessness of this kind of attacks demonstrates that the lowly in modern society are no far more resilient in opposition to the temptation of power than the optimum.

At the hazard of complicating the total argument, even so, we have to don’t forget that not every person in Salem offers in to the hysteria many people refuse to partake in the power struggle, therefore forfeiting their individual lives for the sake of integrity. In simple fact, it would be misleading to suggest that power as a corruptive pressure is some form of literary consistent. Just acquire, for instance, F. Scott Fitzgerald’s The Wonderful Gatsby.

Lovesick for his higher-crusty previous sweetheart, Jay Gatz spends a long time earning a fortune by way of unlawful bootlegging so that he can obtain a lavish mansion, toss wild functions, and acquire on a swanky alter-ego just to impress her. Contrary to his rich cohorts, even so, his actions is hardly ever corrupted by his substantial revenue and significant position. In simple fact, Gatsby is one of the most admirable figures in fiction exactly mainly because his motives remain completely pure – a simple fact which is tragically emphasized by the rotten actions of his entitled, so-identified as mates.

On the one hand, the notion that not every person is susceptible to corruption is a comforting one – especially thinking of that hierarchies exist at every single possible amount of modern society. At the similar time, even so, the notion that power isn’t going to always corrupt is significantly far more complicating than the notion that it does soon after all, if complete power corrupts unquestionably, it very significantly will take particular responsibility out of the equation. The second that outdated indicating improvements to “power corrupts some and not other folks,” modern society loses one of its most time-honored scapegoats.

Supply by Paul Thomson