Several things had appeared to threaten the implementation of the 1924 Constitution. The measurement of the Legislative Council was progressively greater involving 1963 and 1920. The Govt Customers for occasion, who constituted an autocratic the greater part on the Legislative Council controlled almost all the powers. While there had been dynamic unofficial like A.J. Shorunkeh-Sawyerr and Samuel (afterwards Sir Samuel) Lewis in the Legislative Council, there had been a number of things which truly delayed the expansion of the Legislative Council and Govt Councils as really representative institutions1. In other words, these things could be rightly observed as road blocks to the 1924 Constitution.
Colonialism and racism
Colonialism implies dominance, that is, the exploitation of the countrywide pursuits of a topic by a foreign country. Considering the fact that it normally considerations foreign curiosity, race relations are normally included. This political and social process (colonialism) denotes a unique connection involving the imported oligarchy and its topic the greater part which represents the nucleus of what George Balandier referred to as la scenario colonial (the colonial scenario).
An examination of the colonial time period in Sierra Leone from the inception of the Province of Independence in 1787 to the time period of independence in 1961 reveals that racism and colonialism had been handmaidens, that is, they labored jointly. The efforts of Thomas Peters to turn into governor had been thwarted. While a number of things contributed to the outbreak of the Nova Scotia Revolt, the fact that the expertise of slavery at the arms of the whiteman lingered a deep distrust of whites in authority in the minds of the Nova Scotians need to not be disregarded. Even the Maroons emerged from a traumatic expertise preventing for liberty for many years. White domination was bolstered with the formal imposition of colonial rule in the Colony on 1st January, 1808.
Considering the fact that the times of the ancient Greeks, some philosophers held the notion that living items on earth developed from basic to elaborate sorts. It was, having said that, in the nineteenth century that Charles Darwin, the English naturalist, introduced an clarification for the existence of distinctive varieties of crops and animals and the explanations for the extinction of some and arrival of many others. Considering the fact that food items source multiplies slowly but surely than animals, the latter normally battle to live. The implication is that all those who endure could assimilate their environment greater than all those who perish. The fittest, as a result, live to make a different technology that is tailored in the exact same way. This all-natural way of choice is what Darwin called the principal of all-natural choice. The fight to live, the survival of the fittest and all-natural choice are hence the a few tips which fashioned Darwin’s principle of evolution.2
As Thomson observed, “so much had flowed into the Darwinist synthesis that as much all over again could be squeezed out of it”.three His theories (which had been transferred to phylogenetic) gained a effective array of converts ranging from politicians like Chamberlain and Hitler to Scoiologists like Spencer and Sumner and all kinds of imperialisits and expansionists to the close of the final millennium. It is genuine that Darwin was not a racist but it is similarly genuine that “his principle of organic evolution was prolonged to social evolution providing delivery to the Principle of Social Darwinism”4. Social Darwinism, as a result, (used as a philosophical realization for imperialist and racist procedures) sustained a pseudo-scientific perception in Aryan or Anglo-Saxon cultural and organic superiority.
The French started to discuss about la mission civilisatrice, the Germans Pan-Germanism, the Russians Pan-Slavism and the British In the words of Rudyard Kilpling) the whiteman’s burden. While the realistically minded Kenneth Stamp rightly observed that “immensely Negroes are just after all, only whitemen with blackskins, nothing at all a lot more nothing at all a lot less”five, it was (and is unfortunately however) genuine that “quite a few Europeans…cherished the flattering notion of innate white superiority this kind of individuals could rarely help speaking something of their angle to the Africans with whom they came into contact”six.
Possibly no one particular expresses the scenario greater or even worse than a supreme racist, Arthur de Gobineau who, whilst in quite a few words, plainly discussed what quite a few-if most- whites would rapidly endorse. He identified the negro (who tends to mediocrity in all the things) as the least expensive when rated with its counterpart the yellow and the white. The yellow race, while outstanding to the negro, he argues, could not generate any civilized culture. According to him the white race, the most advanced of the a few, is gifted with reflective vitality or alternatively with an energetic intelligence.seven
Racial discrimination or segregation was and is however tied up with the whiteman’s faulty and pseudo-scientific conception that the races are unequal. The new imperialism which designed in the latter portion of the nineteenth century altered the primary coverage of preparing the West African territories for self-federal government and “the Typical Act of the Berlin Meeting and that of the Brussels Meeting delivered the juridical foundation for European expansion into the hinterland as properly as for the acquisition on the coastline… The coastal region of West Africa was swiftly partitioned by the imperial powers just after 1885.8
With the expansion of racism and the proclamation of the Protectorate in 1896, a new era dawned on the deal with of Sierra Leone. It need to not be neglected that the Krios had a superior begin above their counterparts in the inside (afterwards the Protectorate) mainly because of the early imposition or importation of western schooling in the colony. The British recognized that if offered the possibility the Krios would verify their competence and certainly they had been in the beginning partners in the administration.
As a outcome of the insufficient source of European manpower, the junior posts had been almost an African monopoly. These posts gave them some perception in the workings of the colonial administration. A.J.G. Wyse in other words commented that “European appreciation of the abilities of these Africans reached a superior point in 1872 when Governor Pope Henessy exulted that there had been plenty of skilled Krios to change the total European personnel”.nine
James C.E. Parkes’ plan for administering the declared Protectorate was categorically rejected by the Colonial Business office which neglected Pope Hennessy’s assertion by noting that it would be a simple impossibility to assemble a sufficient number of capable Krios In a realistic observation, Porter observed that “Cardew who disliked and mistrusted the Creoles, only prolonged a line of coverage by now agreed on. The functions of the ten years that adopted showed the trend of this coverage.”ten
The era of the vocation open up to abilities had handed absent. Discrimination, alternatively than competence or qualification, was the order of the day. Cardew’s coverage of replacing Africans with Europeans was ongoing by his predecessors. It is lamentable to observe that in 1900, J.E. Dawson, Assistant Head of Customs was not replaced by an African, but alternatively a European. Just after the death of Enoch Faulkner, a Krio African Assistant District Commissioner, in 1908, the colonial administration amalgamated his district at Waterloo with an adjacent one particular and appointed a European to thrive him. possibly Fyle’s data reveal the scenario greater. As he observed, “Krios progressively dropped their favoured situation in the colonial hierarchy. While in 1892, Krios held 18 out of about forty senior positions by 1912, when these appointments had exceeded 90, Krios only held fifteen and five of these had been abolished in the following five years.”11
The colonial federal government believed it in good shape to drain a tiny region from malaria for the English inhabitants in the city. In 1904, Hill Station was picked as the appropriate site and was turned into a reservation for the European inhabitants. This geographical length was before long translated into social length. Hill Station turned a badge of superiority. The scenario was the exact same in the health-related discipline. Considering the fact that blacks had been regarded as innately inferior, most whites disliked currently being addressed by African medical practitioners. It before long, as a result, turned customary to exclude African medical practitioners irrespective of their skills. In 1902, African medical practitioners had been excluded from the unified West African Medical Support and the Govt White Paper Coverage in 1909 publicly proclaimed that “the committee are by now strongly of feeling that it is in normal inadvisable to use natives of West Africa as health-related officers in the Govt Support.”12
This discriminatory angle truly influenced the immediate improvement of the Legislative and Govt Councils as really representative institutions. The whitemen in these councils for occasion would not have appreciated an African governor. In 1900 unofficial illustration was not greater while the (Legislative) Council was now dependable for the full of the Colony and the Protectorate. It was argued that tribal Africans had been not prepared for this, and that more Creole illustration was unacceptable to the administration. Not unnaturally, this coverage this coverage of discrimination which enormously minimal possibility gave delivery to a excellent deal of resentment all through this time period.
Divide and rule
Carefully tied with discrimination is the coverage of divide and rule. By deliberately suffocating the efforts of the Krios to keep top positions in the Protectorate and the Legislative Council and by widening the bridge involving inhabitants of the Colony and Protectorate, the colonial administration was in outcome controlling the degree of opposition from her subjects. It recognized the outcome of unity. By trying to keep the two administrative units divided, the inhabitants of the two regions will not have much time to assault the federal government as a unified power. The federal government desired to stop that ‘unity’ in politics which was present in Sierra Leone just prior to independence when all current political forces or functions amalgamated into a United Front to question for the extensive-awaited independence. Certainly, “outstanding among the problems which have normally dominated Sierra Leone politics is one particular generally described as the Colony-Protectorate issue.”13 As an alternative of uniting the Colony and Protectorate politically, it is apparent that the declaration of the Protectorate in 1896 divided it culturally and ethnically. It was pretty uncomfortable to discover that, according to the Protectorate Ordinance in 1896, the administration of the Protectorate was to be by Europeans. The the greater part of the Krios plainly noticed that the federal government, in its place of bridging and cementing, was consciously widening the gap involving the Colony and Protectorate. Official coverage fostered division and tribalism. Chinua Achebe’s Things Slide Aside is certainly a timeless novel. The Europeans cleverly inserted the wedge and plainly divided Sierra Leoneans who could no for a longer period see on their own as brothers. The drop of the Krios for occasion was systematically prepared by the colonial administration.
The Prospectus of the Bo Faculty, if everything- reveals the implicit motivation of the colonial administration to stop Protectorate boys from obtaining the kind of schooling the colony educational facilities delivered. The administration in outcome was saying that it desired to teach ‘yes men’ alternatively than critics of the federal government. These Protectorate boys need to not turn into like the Krios. They need to not stick to the instance of distinguished adult men like Ezzidio or Lewis. They need to obey the powers that be irrespective of the outcome of their steps. To foster division, the colonial administration in a pretty clever way argued that the two native pupils and their lecturers need to don their own country clothes.
In a pretty forceful argument, Marcus Jones shown a number of factors which without doubt lend credence to the check out point that it was a acutely aware or deliberate – alternatively than an accidental- coverage of the colonial administration to preserve the Krios of the Colony and the inhabitants of the Protectorate distinctly aside. He noticed that no legal professionals from the Colony had been permitted to appear in the Court of the Protectorate without the need of unique permission even while a a lot more authorized process was currently being released.fourteen
The implication of this coverage of divide and rule on the Legislative Council was clear. The self confidence loved by Africans prior to the declaration of the Protectorate was truly effaced. They turned mere advisers whose assistance in quite a few occasions had been neglected. The Legislative and Govt Councils involving 1896 and 1920 as a result had been mere rubber stamps of federal government coverage. The Protectorate inhabitants had been just dismissed as unqualified adult men not but prepared for illustration in the colonial administration and the Krios in the colony (skilled adult men) had been truly discriminated versus. By trying to keep these two administrative units divided, the likelihood of challenging the federal government had been proficiently diminished. Discrimination and divide and rule had been as a result two effective road blocks to the improvement of the Legislative and Govt Councils as really representative institutions.
The Fantastic War (1914-1918)
Attention need to be drawn to an exterior variable (that is the To start with War) which- even if indirectly- influenced constitutional improvement in Sierra Leone all through its duration. The To start with Planet War broke the peace that had been thoroughly maintained given that 1815. Even though it was primarily a European War, it did influence other elements of the world. Colonial peoples joined the war for various explanations. This is major mainly because just prior to the war rumblings had been sounded which denoted troubles to British reign. By 1914, it was clear that the colonial administration and the Krios had been prospective enemies. Nonetheless, this hostile connection notwithstanding, all hatchets and grievances had been buried as all and sundry rallied spherical the British federal government or alternatively the British Crown to defend that cherished empire and that gracious Queen.
The implication then is that all political agitation or pressures had been suspended mainly because of the outbreak of the To start with Planet War. It need to be borne in mind that a number of strain teams had emerged by this time period. The Ratepayers’ Association and the Civil Servants’ Association for occasion had been among the other strain teams that set the federal government on edge. Some Krios had even began chatting about an corporation this kind of as the Nationwide Congress of British West Africa. Considering the fact that the total time period of the To start with Planet War was dormant as there was a momentary split in political agitation, the War could rightly be observed as an obstacle to constitutional improve or improvement.
The Fantastic Debate
This obstacle was mainly interior contrary to the To start with Planet War. The issue was the position of the inhabitants of the Protectorate recognised as the Fantastic Debate. This authorized tussle was an essential and thorny issue. Perusal of the motion of this debate lays bare two interesting discoveries. To start with, it plainly showed the dynamism of the colony representatives, with a precise reference to Shorunkeh-Sawyerr. Second, it disclosed the angle of the Colonial administration. It is of critical importance to put this Fantastic Debate in viewpoint mainly because, among other items, it threatened the implementation of the 1924 Constitution. By 1922 the composition of the Govt Council was the exact same as 1863. In other words, it was however an advisory overall body built up completely by European officers. The Legislative Council was then constituted as follows:
The Officer Commanding the Troops
The Colonial Secretary
The Attorney Typical
The Colonial Treasurer
The Principal Medical Officer
Three African Customers
One particular European Member.
It is clear from the info said above that the two Councils had been much from currently being democratic institutions. Nonetheless, moves for a a lot more liberal structure started with the assumption of business by R.J. Wilkinson’s successor, Alexander Ransford Slater (afterwards knighted) who arrived in Sierra Leone in 1922. While he ‘identified’ the constitutional problem, his conclusions had been to a huge extent prejudicial.
The problem which Slater identified in Sierra Leone shortly just after his arrival was nothing at all other than the disproportionate stability involving the numerical measurement of the two segments which constituted the country’s inhabitants, He noticed that there was no illustration from the Protectorate in the Legislative Council which established its legislation while the Colony which had eighty,000 Africans versus the one,350,000 aborigines in the Protectorate had a few unofficial representatives. Slater dismissed this as “an anomaly of a rather obtrusive character”fifteen and he as a result felt it incumbent on him to make an early review of the problem of a feasible reform of the Legislative Council.
Slater confident the members of the Legislative Council that he would present his proposed reforms to the Duke of Devonshire. When the Council fulfilled all over again on twenty eighth December 1922, Governor Slater educated it that the Duke had by now authorized of the enlargement and reconstitution of the Legislative Council of the Colony and Protectorate of Sierra Leone. The Legislative Council was to be enlarged to 20-two members together with the Governor (that is eleven formal and ten unofficial members). Out of the ten unofficial members, a few had been to be elected and 7 nominated. All those elected had been to be Colony members. Of the 7 nominated members, two had been to be African representatives of the Colony, two Europeans and a few Paramount Chiefs from the Protectorate. The issue which led to Blyden’s designation (The Fantastic Debate) was the issue of Protectorate illustration on the Council and this ushered in a collection of acrimonious debates in the Legislative Council. A essential review of the trend of functions in the Legislative Council prior to the implementation of the 1924 Constitution reveals that “there is no question that, in regulation, if not in fact, the Creoles of the Colony had a robust situation versus the implementation of the proposed structure…”sixteen According to the Overseas Jurisdiction Act of 1890, the Protectorate was a foreign territory. The implication then is that its inhabitants are aliens who had no small business in the Legislative Council of the Colony.
In Slater’s check out, the press of the day furnished the community with untrue information. According to the Push, the Protectorate was however in its embryonic phase to receive direct illustration and the so-called improve was a fictional idea compelled on chiefs. Right before the declaration of the Protectorate in 1896, Governor Cardew noticed that all through his excursions the chiefs favoured the idea of a Protectorate. Nearly a quarter of a century afterwards, Slater far too claimed to have visited the chiefs who favoured illustration. He observed that in his new excursions, the chiefs on their own requested for direct illustration on the the Legislative Council. Commenting more on the issue, Slater argued forcefully that “direct illustration would be inadvisable if there had been no suitable chiefs to be representatives but this was not the situation. I am pleased from my personal expertise all through my excursions in the Protectorate, and from information that there do exist in each and every of the Provinces, Paramount Chiefs who can adequately comprehend and specific their thoughts on issues this kind of as we consider in this place”.seventeen
Shorunkeh-Sawyerr- an extremely gifted guy with excellent sensitivity- was the Senior unofficial member of the Legislative Council all through the time period of the Fantastic Debate. It would have been fantastic for a racist like Sir Richard Burton- who as soon as observed that “the negro in mass will not build further than a specific point and that not respectable”18 to have been present in the Legislative Council when unofficial members (primarily Shorunkeh-Sawyerr) took the colonial federal government to process with audio arguments. The colony politicians based mostly their opposition on a number of grounds. They considered that the Protectorate was not far too advanced for illustration. Bringing then Provincial Commissioners and Chiefs to the exact same council will weaken Protectorate illustration in its place of buttressing it merely mainly because of the connection of subordination and domination involving the chiefs and their bosses, the Provincial Commissioners.
Bringing these ‘yes men’ of the administration into the Legislative Council was a clever way to improve supporters of the federal government. But Shorunkeh-Sawyerr was truly baffled. There had been a number of challenges he necessary clarification on, the most essential currently being the true or actual position of the inhabitants of the Protectorate.
It would be respectable to infer that Shorunkeh-Sawyerr was most likely correct in this quest. One particular of the burning challenges which had appear on and off in problem given that the declaration of the Protectorate in 1896 was the political position of the natives occupying these territories. In the space of 7 years (1916-1923), a few Crown Law Officers gave their candid thoughts on the issue. The thoughts of two of these- while unequivocal- had been divergent and that of the 3rd was intermediate. The implication these controversial thoughts had was that the issue was in need of a satisfactory clarification. Minimal question then that Shorunkeh-Sawyerr termed them as aliens- and aliens they truly had been.
The Overseas Jurisdiction Act of 1890 declared the Protectorate a foreign territory which meant that its inhabitants far too had been foreigners or aliens. Right before proceeding, one particular need to truly problem the doubtful nature of the colonial coverage. When the Bo Faculty was fashioned, it was supposed for the sons and nominees of chiefs and the boys need to be offered an schooling completely distinctive from that which the Krios acquired. Before long just after the punctuation of the Bai Bureh Revolt, the British had been engaged in the pacification procedure, that is, the suppression of all resistant actions. The colonial federal government organized a Protectorate march all through which its soldiers shown their advanced weapons to display the individuals how robust the federal government power was and to frighten them to turn into pusillanimous as much as preventing or challenging the administration all over again was worried. As Fyle observed, “just after the war of liberty of 1898, the Sierra Leone hinterland settled down to a boring acceptance of British rule”.19 Rulers like Madam Yoko, Nancy Tucker of Bagru and D.F. Wilberforce who had been favourable to the British had been chosen to turn into Paramount Chiefs. Chiefs suspected to have been disloyal had been possibly deposed or exiled, for instance, the excellent Kebalai (Bai Bureh) of Kasse and Nyagua of Panguma.
The implication in this article is that Paramount Chiefs will normally attempt to preserve the goodwill of the British alternatively than cultivate the guidance of the individuals. By 1922, the two chiefs and their individuals had been diametrically aside and the former could not be appropriate representatives of the latter. The inclusion of chiefs who neglect the wishes of their individuals will as a result make the Legislative Council unrepresentative. Neither the governor nor the Acting Attorney-Typical could convince Shorunkeh-Sawyerr that the Protectorate inhabitants had been British subjects. Shorunkey-Sawyerr’s request for annexation was impressed by the related scenario in the Gold Coast Colony. He was certainly specific that this would undoubtedly happen in the in the vicinity of long term and truly tried to avert the authorized difficulties included. He was among one particular of the pretty very first Sierra Leoneans to argue for annexation and it is moderately as a result to notice that the Krios had been not always versus the inclusion of the protectorate into the council.
It appeared as if Shorunkeh-Sawyerr was chaotic counting the stars in the sky in a vibrant night time. The Governor’s mind was fastened. He had believed of reconstitution and its class prior to arriving in Sierra Leone and his mind was almost closed. Maybe he erroneously believed that the Chiefs in the Protectorate region had been on a par with their Gold Coast counterparts. This above simplication was far too misleading. According to formal feeling, the Protectorate inhabitants could choose the Oath of Allegiance which is the most important precedent to be a member of the Council. Nonetheless, it would appear as if formal coverage desired to delay the idea of annexation given that Governor Slater noticed that this kind of a request need to appear from Protectorate inhabitants on their own.
A shut appear at the Fantastic Debate exhibits that even the British had been not far too absolutely sure whether or not it was truly right to have the Protectorate representatives in the Legislative Council. It truly magnified the angle of the colonial administration. One particular sees traces of racism. The idea of race is tied up with the pseudo-scientific conception of the inequality of the races or even worse however, the superiority of European lifestyle. Considering the fact that the blackman was considered to be at the foot of the human tree of evolution, he need to take the ‘fact’ that the whiteman is pretty clever and normally correct. There was as a result that usual ‘jumble obstinacy’ not to produce to the outstanding and respectable argument of the Africans all through this Fantastic Debate.
The colonial administration gave a blind eye to the validity of Shorunkeh-Sawyerr’s plea for annexation and alternatively identified all kinds of ‘rationalization’ to justify their coverage.
However, the Committee of Educated Aborigines (a Protectorate Corporation) gullibly accepted Governor Slater’s situation of while which unrealistically attributed the relative backwardness of the Protectorate to the selfishness of the Colony. This kind of tendencious statements had been not only silly or gratuitously provocative but had been also a hotchpotch of throroughly evil nonsense. Newspaper reports display that – if everything- there had been cries for Protectorate illustration in the Legislative Council. In the nineteenth century, Sir David Chalmers turned down Samuel (afterwards Sir Samuel) Lewis’ cry for Protectorate illustration in the Legislative Council. The assertion as a result that the colony individuals had been completely versus Protectorate illustration need to not be in a blind manner. Shorunkeh-Sawyerr cleared this point in one particular of his speeches. He was not versus protectorate illustration. The colony lifted eyebrows mainly because of the manner of Protectorate illustration. It was clear that by 1924, the Paramount Chiefs had been all of course adult men of the federal government. As said above, this scenario was carved just after the close of the Bai Bureh Revolt (1898) when so-called ‘disloyal’ chiefs had been possibly exiled or deposed and faithful kinds retained or mounted.
It was clear that the members of the Committee of Training Aborigines who felt that the ‘anomaly’ need to be corrected represented only a portion of the Protectorate. They had been all northerners and their most important motive was to foster protectorate challenges.
It was as a result clear that the coverage of the colonial federal government was bias and as soon as it had been laid down, no total of objective analysis by colony Africans in Sierra Leone could alter it. It is as a result not shocking that at the recommendation of Governor Slater, the moot problem was withdrawn. Deveneaux’s comment on colonial coverage was an exact one particular. He commented hence, “the recommendation that colonial coverage was formulated in London and despatched overseas…describes the scenario in the nineteenth century (and also twentieth century) Sierra Leone. Undeniably, this conclusion in London was regularly remaining….”20
As by now said, this Fantastic Debate need to be put into viewpoint mainly because it truly ‘threatened’ the implementation of the 1924 Ransford Slater Constitution. The administration would not produce to the recommendation of Shorunkeh-Sawyerr, having said that legitimate it was. The close of the Fantastic Debate also coincided with the punctuation of the existence of that archaic or ancient Legislative Council which had served the colony of Sierra Leone for above a millennium.
one. Edward Blyden III, “The pattern of constitutional improve in Sierra Leone, 1924-1951), unpublished Ph.D. thesis, Harvard, 1975, p.127
2. Walter T. Wallbank, et.al. Historical past and Lifetime, (Illinois: Scott, Foreman and Organization, 1977), p.487
three. David Thomson, Europe given that Napoleon, (Norfolk: Lowe and Brydone Printers Ltd, 1957), p.257
4. The New Encyclopaedia Britannica Vol.27, s.v. “Social Darwinism”, p.339
five. Kenneth Stamp, The Peculiar Establishment, (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1956), p.three
six. Gustav Jahoda, Whiteman, (London: Oxford College Push, 1961), p.113
seven. Howard M. Bahr, Bruce A. Chadwick, Joseph H. Stauss, American Ethnicity, (Massachusetts: D.C. Heath & Co., 1979), pp.128-129
8. Boniface Obichere, West African states and European expansion, (New Haven: Yale College Push, 1971), p.245
nine. A.J.G. Wyse, “The Krios of Sierra Leone-Of British imperial overrule?”, p4
ten. Arthur Porter, Creoledom, (London: Oxford College Push, 1963), p.61
11. Cecil M. Fyle, The heritage of Sierra Leone, (London: Evans Brothers Ltd., 1981), p.one hundred ten
12. Christopher Fyfe, Sierra Leone Inheritance, ed. (London: Oxford College Push, 1964), p.262
13. Gershon Collier, Sierra Leone: experiment in democracy in an African country, (New York: New York College Push, 1970), p.nine
fourteen. W.S. Marcus Jones, “Legal improvement and constitutional improve in Sierra Leone, 1787-1971”, unpublished manuscript, pp.260-261
fifteen. Sierra Leone Legislative Council Debates (henceforth ‘Debates’), 1922-23, Sierra Leone Public Archives, Fourah Bay Higher education, p.six
sixteen. Blyden, op.cit., p.128
seventeen. Debates, No.II, 1922-23, p.six
18. Sir Richard Burton: cited in Journal of the Royal African Society, Vol.70, p.240
19. Cecil M. Fyle, Alimamy Suluku of Sierra Leone (London: Evans Brothers Ltd., 1979), p.52
20. Deveneaux, op.cit., p.47
Supply by Oliver Harding