Numerous elements had appeared to threaten the implementation of the 1924 Constitution. The size of the Legislative Council was step by step greater involving 1963 and 1920. The Government Members for instance, who constituted an autocratic majority on the Legislative Council controlled almost all the powers. Despite the fact that there have been dynamic unofficial like A.J. Shorunkeh-Sawyerr and Samuel (afterwards Sir Samuel) Lewis in the Legislative Council, there have been a number of elements which definitely delayed the advancement of the Legislative Council and Government Councils as certainly consultant institutions1. In other terms, these elements could be rightly viewed as obstacles to the 1924 Constitution.
Colonialism and racism
Colonialism implies dominance, that is, the exploitation of the nationwide passions of a issue by a foreign country. Due to the fact it generally issues foreign desire, race relations are commonly concerned. This political and social method (colonialism) denotes a exclusive relationship involving the imported oligarchy and its issue majority which signifies the nucleus of what George Balandier referred to as la condition colonial (the colonial condition).
An assessment of the colonial period in Sierra Leone from the inception of the Province of Flexibility in 1787 to the period of independence in 1961 reveals that racism and colonialism have been handmaidens, that is, they labored together. The initiatives of Thomas Peters to come to be governor have been thwarted. Despite the fact that a number of elements contributed to the outbreak of the Nova Scotia Rebellion, the point that the working experience of slavery at the arms of the whiteman lingered a deep distrust of whites in authority in the minds of the Nova Scotians should not be disregarded. Even the Maroons emerged from a traumatic working experience battling for liberty for decades. White domination was strengthened with the official imposition of colonial rule in the Colony on 1st January, 1808.
Due to the fact the days of the historic Greeks, some philosophers held the idea that living items on earth advanced from easy to complex sorts. It was, having said that, in the nineteenth century that Charles Darwin, the English naturalist, presented an explanation for the existence of unique types of vegetation and animals and the good reasons for the extinction of some and arrival of other individuals. Due to the fact food stuff provide multiplies slowly and gradually than animals, the latter generally battle to are living. The implication is that all those who survive could assimilate their natural environment superior than all those who perish. The fittest, for that reason, are living to generate an additional generation that is tailored in the very same way. This normal way of range is what Darwin identified as the principal of normal range. The struggle to are living, the survival of the fittest and normal range are thus the 3 suggestions which shaped Darwin’s concept of evolution.two
As Thomson noted, “so a lot had flowed into the Darwinist synthesis that as a lot all over again could be squeezed out of it”.3 His theories (which have been transferred to phylogenetic) received a effective array of converts ranging from politicians like Chamberlain and Hitler to Scoiologists like Spencer and Sumner and all kinds of imperialisits and expansionists in the direction of the conclusion of the previous millennium. It is accurate that Darwin was not a racist but it is equally accurate that “his concept of biological evolution was prolonged to social evolution offering beginning to the Idea of Social Darwinism”4. Social Darwinism, for that reason, (utilised as a philosophical realization for imperialist and racist policies) sustained a pseudo-scientific belief in Aryan or Anglo-Saxon cultural and biological superiority.
The French commenced to communicate about la mission civilisatrice, the Germans Pan-Germanism, the Russians Pan-Slavism and the British In the terms of Rudyard Kilpling) the whiteman’s stress. Despite the fact that the realistically minded Kenneth Stamp rightly noted that “immensely Negroes are immediately after all, only whitemen with blackskins, nothing additional nothing a lot less”5, it was (and is regrettably continue to) accurate that “a lot of Europeans…cherished the flattering idea of innate white superiority this sort of persons could hardly assistance speaking a thing of their perspective to the Africans with whom they arrived into call”6.
Perhaps no one expresses the condition superior or even worse than a supreme racist, Arthur de Gobineau who, while in a lot of terms, evidently stated what a lot of-if most- whites would rapidly endorse. He discovered the negro (who tends to mediocrity in all the things) as the cheapest when rated with its counterpart the yellow and the white. The yellow race, nevertheless top-quality to the negro, he argues, could not generate any civilized modern society. According to him the white race, the most highly developed of the 3, is gifted with reflective energy or rather with an energetic intelligence.7
Racial discrimination or segregation was and is continue to tied up with the whiteman’s faulty and pseudo-scientific conception that the races are unequal. The new imperialism which formulated in the latter element of the nineteenth century altered the initial policy of planning the West African territories for self-governing administration and “the General Act of the Berlin Convention and that of the Brussels Convention delivered the juridical basis for European expansion into the hinterland as very well as for the acquisition on the coast… The coastal area of West Africa was speedily partitioned by the imperial powers immediately after 1885.8
With the advancement of racism and the proclamation of the Protectorate in 1896, a new period dawned on the confront of Sierra Leone. It should not be neglected that the Krios had a fantastic begin around their counterparts in the inside (afterwards the Protectorate) mainly because of the early imposition or importation of western education and learning in the colony. The British recognized that if given the possibility the Krios would confirm their competence and in fact they have been to begin with partners in the administration.
As a final result of the insufficient provide of European manpower, the junior posts have been almost an African monopoly. These posts gave them some insight in the workings of the colonial administration. A.J.G. Wyse in other terms commented that “European appreciation of the abilities of these Africans reached a high point in 1872 when Governor Pope Henessy exulted that there have been adequate capable Krios to swap the whole European personnel”.nine
James C.E. Parkes’ strategy for administering the declared Protectorate was categorically rejected by the Colonial Business office which neglected Pope Hennessy’s assertion by noting that it would be a sensible impossibility to assemble a ample number of skilled Krios In a practical observation, Porter noted that “Cardew who disliked and mistrusted the Creoles, only prolonged a line of policy already agreed on. The occasions of the ten years that followed showed the trend of this policy.”ten
The period of the job open to abilities had handed absent. Discrimination, rather than competence or qualification, was the get of the day. Cardew’s policy of changing Africans with Europeans was ongoing by his predecessors. It is lamentable to observe that in 1900, J.E. Dawson, Assistant Head of Customs was not changed by an African, but rather a European. Immediately after the death of Enoch Faulkner, a Krio African Assistant District Commissioner, in 1908, the colonial administration amalgamated his district at Waterloo with an adjacent one and appointed a European to be successful him. potentially Fyle’s studies make clear the condition superior. As he noted, “Krios step by step dropped their favoured place in the colonial hierarchy. Whilst in 1892, Krios held 18 out of about 40 senior positions by 1912, when these appointments had exceeded ninety, Krios only held fifteen and 5 of these have been abolished in the upcoming five decades.”eleven
The colonial governing administration assumed it in shape to drain a little place from malaria for the English populace in the town. In 1904, Hill Station was picked out as the suitable website and was turned into a reservation for the European populace. This geographical distance was shortly translated into social distance. Hill Station grew to become a badge of superiority. The condition was the very same in the professional medical area. Due to the fact blacks have been deemed innately inferior, most whites disliked being addressed by African medical doctors. It shortly, for that reason, grew to become customary to exclude African medical doctors irrespective of their skills. In 1902, African medical doctors have been excluded from the unified West African Clinical Provider and the Government White Paper Coverage in 1909 publicly proclaimed that “the committee are already strongly of feeling that it is in basic inadvisable to utilize natives of West Africa as professional medical officers in the Government Provider.”twelve
This discriminatory perspective definitely afflicted the quick improvement of the Legislative and Government Councils as certainly consultant establishments. The whitemen in these councils for instance would not have appreciated an African governor. In 1900 unofficial illustration was not greater nevertheless the (Legislative) Council was now dependable for the whole of the Colony and the Protectorate. It was argued that tribal Africans have been not all set for this, and that further Creole illustration was unacceptable to the administration. Not unnaturally, this policy this policy of discrimination which considerably confined possibility gave beginning to a fantastic offer of resentment all through this period.
Divide and rule
Closely tied with discrimination is the policy of divide and rule. By deliberately suffocating the initiatives of the Krios to keep top rated positions in the Protectorate and the Legislative Council and by widening the bridge involving inhabitants of the Colony and Protectorate, the colonial administration was in outcome controlling the diploma of opposition from her topics. It recognized the outcome of unity. By retaining the two administrative models divided, the inhabitants of equally locations will not have a lot time to assault the governing administration as a unified drive. The governing administration wished to protect against that ‘unity’ in politics which was current in Sierra Leone just just before independence when all present political forces or get-togethers amalgamated into a United Front to inquire for the lengthy-awaited independence. Certainly, “notable among the the complications which have generally dominated Sierra Leone politics is one frequently described as the Colony-Protectorate problem.”13 As an alternative of uniting the Colony and Protectorate politically, it is apparent that the declaration of the Protectorate in 1896 divided it culturally and ethnically. It was pretty awkward to find out that, according to the Protectorate Ordinance in 1896, the administration of the Protectorate was to be by Europeans. The majority of the Krios evidently saw that the governing administration, in its place of bridging and cementing, was consciously widening the hole involving the Colony and Protectorate. Formal policy fostered division and tribalism. Chinua Achebe’s Matters Slide Aside is in fact a timeless novel. The Europeans cleverly inserted the wedge and evidently divided Sierra Leoneans who could no longer see on their own as brothers. The decline of the Krios for instance was systematically planned by the colonial administration.
The Prospectus of the Bo College, if everything- reveals the implicit wish of the colonial administration to protect against Protectorate boys from obtaining the variety of education and learning the colony schools delivered. The administration in outcome was stating that it wished to educate ‘yes men’ rather than critics of the governing administration. These Protectorate boys really should not come to be like the Krios. They really should not adhere to the case in point of distinguished gentlemen like Ezzidio or Lewis. They really should obey the powers that be irrespective of the outcome of their actions. To foster division, the colonial administration in a pretty intelligent way argued that equally indigenous pupils and their teachers really should dress in their very own state garments.
In a pretty forceful argument, Marcus Jones shown a number of factors which without doubt lend credence to the view point that it was a acutely aware or deliberate – rather than an accidental- policy of the colonial administration to maintain the Krios of the Colony and the inhabitants of the Protectorate distinctly apart. He observed that no attorneys from the Colony have been permitted to show up in the Courtroom of the Protectorate devoid of exclusive permission even nevertheless a additional lawful method was being released.fourteen
The implication of this policy of divide and rule on the Legislative Council was distinct. The self esteem appreciated by Africans prior to the declaration of the Protectorate was definitely effaced. They grew to become mere advisers whose information in a lot of occasions have been neglected. The Legislative and Government Councils involving 1896 and 1920 for that reason have been mere rubber stamps of governing administration policy. The Protectorate inhabitants have been just dismissed as unqualified gentlemen not nevertheless all set for illustration in the colonial administration and the Krios in the colony (capable gentlemen) have been definitely discriminated against. By retaining these two administrative models divided, the chances of complicated the governing administration have been proficiently minimized. Discrimination and divide and rule have been for that reason two effective obstacles to the improvement of the Legislative and Government Councils as certainly consultant establishments.
The Excellent War (1914-1918)
Consideration should be drawn to an external factor (that is the To start with War) which- even if indirectly- afflicted constitutional improvement in Sierra Leone all through its length. The To start with Entire world War broke the peace that had been meticulously preserved considering the fact that 1815. When it was mostly a European War, it did impact other parts of the globe. Colonial peoples joined the war for many good reasons. This is significant mainly because just just before the war rumblings had been sounded which denoted difficulties to British reign. By 1914, it was distinct that the colonial administration and the Krios have been potential enemies. Having said that, this hostile relationship notwithstanding, all hatchets and grievances have been buried as all and sundry rallied round the British governing administration or rather the British Crown to protect that cherished empire and that gracious Queen.
The implication then is that all political agitation or pressures have been suspended mainly because of the outbreak of the To start with Entire world War. It should be borne in intellect that a number of strain teams had emerged by this period. The Ratepayers’ Affiliation and the Civil Servants’ Affiliation for instance have been among the the other strain teams that set the governing administration on edge. Some Krios had even started off chatting about an group this sort of as the Nationwide Congress of British West Africa. Due to the fact the whole period of the To start with Entire world War was dormant as there was a temporary break in political agitation, the War could rightly be viewed as an impediment to constitutional change or improvement.
The Excellent Discussion
This impediment was largely inside contrary to the To start with Entire world War. The problem was the status of the inhabitants of the Protectorate recognized as the Excellent Discussion. This lawful tussle was an significant and thorny problem. Perusal of the movement of this discussion lays bare two appealing discoveries. To start with, it evidently showed the dynamism of the colony representatives, with a particular reference to Shorunkeh-Sawyerr. 2nd, it uncovered the perspective of the Colonial administration. It is of crucial significance to place this Excellent Discussion in perspective mainly because, among the other items, it threatened the implementation of the 1924 Constitution. By 1922 the composition of the Government Council was the very same as 1863. In other terms, it was continue to an advisory system made up totally by European officials. The Legislative Council was then constituted as follows:
The Officer Commanding the Troops
The Colonial Secretary
The Lawyer General
The Colonial Treasurer
The Principal Clinical Officer
Three African Members
A single European Member.
It is distinct from the facts mentioned earlier mentioned that equally Councils have been far from being democratic establishments. Having said that, moves for a additional liberal constitution commenced with the assumption of office by R.J. Wilkinson’s successor, Alexander Ransford Slater (afterwards knighted) who arrived in Sierra Leone in 1922. Despite the fact that he ‘identified’ the constitutional trouble, his conclusions have been to a massive extent prejudicial.
The trouble which Slater discovered in Sierra Leone shortly immediately after his arrival was nothing other than the disproportionate harmony involving the numerical size of the two segments which constituted the country’s populace, He observed that there was no illustration from the Protectorate in the Legislative Council which determined its legislation while the Colony which had eighty,000 Africans against the one,350,000 aborigines in the Protectorate had 3 unofficial representatives. Slater dismissed this as “an anomaly of a to some degree evident character”fifteen and he for that reason felt it incumbent on him to make an early research of the problem of a achievable reform of the Legislative Council.
Slater assured the associates of the Legislative Council that he would current his proposed reforms to the Duke of Devonshire. When the Council satisfied all over again on twenty eighth December 1922, Governor Slater informed it that the Duke had already authorized of the enlargement and reconstitution of the Legislative Council of the Colony and Protectorate of Sierra Leone. The Legislative Council was to be enlarged to 20-two associates like the Governor (that is eleven formal and ten unofficial associates). Out of the ten unofficial associates, 3 have been to be elected and 7 nominated. People elected have been to be Colony associates. Of the 7 nominated associates, two have been to be African representatives of the Colony, two Europeans and 3 Paramount Chiefs from the Protectorate. The problem which led to Blyden’s designation (The Excellent Discussion) was the problem of Protectorate illustration on the Council and this ushered in a collection of acrimonious debates in the Legislative Council. A significant research of the trend of occasions in the Legislative Council prior to the implementation of the 1924 Constitution reveals that “there is no doubt that, in law, if not in point, the Creoles of the Colony had a powerful case against the implementation of the proposed constitution…”16 According to the International Jurisdiction Act of 1890, the Protectorate was a foreign territory. The implication then is that its inhabitants are aliens who had no business enterprise in the Legislative Council of the Colony.
In Slater’s view, the press of the day furnished the general public with fake facts. According to the Press, the Protectorate was continue to in its embryonic phase to receive immediate illustration and the so-identified as change was a fictional thought compelled on chiefs. Right before the declaration of the Protectorate in 1896, Governor Cardew observed that all through his excursions the chiefs favoured the thought of a Protectorate. Almost a quarter of a century afterwards, Slater far too claimed to have visited the chiefs who favoured illustration. He noted that in his current excursions, the chiefs on their own requested for immediate illustration on the the Legislative Council. Commenting further on the problem, Slater argued forcefully that “immediate illustration would be inadvisable if there have been no acceptable chiefs to be representatives but this was not the case. I am contented from my individual working experience all through my excursions in the Protectorate, and from facts that there do exist in every single of the Provinces, Paramount Chiefs who can adequately comprehend and specific their opinions on matters this sort of as we look at in this area”.17
Shorunkeh-Sawyerr- an exceptionally gifted male with fantastic sensitivity- was the Senior unofficial member of the Legislative Council all through the period of the Excellent Discussion. It would have been fantastic for a racist like Sir Richard Burton- who once noted that “the negro in mass will not create outside of a sure point and that not respectable”18 to have been current in the Legislative Council when unofficial associates (specifically Shorunkeh-Sawyerr) took the colonial governing administration to undertaking with seem arguments. The colony politicians based their opposition on a number of grounds. They believed that the Protectorate was not far too highly developed for illustration. Bringing then Provincial Commissioners and Chiefs to the very same council will weaken Protectorate illustration in its place of buttressing it simply mainly because of the relationship of subordination and domination involving the chiefs and their bosses, the Provincial Commissioners.
Bringing these ‘yes men’ of the administration into the Legislative Council was a intelligent way to raise supporters of the governing administration. But Shorunkeh-Sawyerr was definitely bewildered. There have been a number of issues he necessary clarification on, the most significant being the actual or true status of the inhabitants of the Protectorate.
It would be authentic to infer that Shorunkeh-Sawyerr was likely right in this quest. A single of the burning issues which had occur on and off in problem considering the fact that the declaration of the Protectorate in 1896 was the political status of the natives occupying these territories. In the area of 7 decades (1916-1923), 3 Crown Law Officers gave their candid opinions on the problem. The opinions of two of these- nevertheless unequivocal- have been divergent and that of the third was intermediate. The implication these controversial opinions had was that the problem was in want of a satisfactory explanation. Minor ponder then that Shorunkeh-Sawyerr termed them as aliens- and aliens they definitely have been.
The International Jurisdiction Act of 1890 declared the Protectorate a foreign territory which meant that its inhabitants far too have been foreigners or aliens. Right before proceeding, one should definitely problem the doubtful character of the colonial policy. When the Bo College was shaped, it was meant for the sons and nominees of chiefs and the boys really should be given an education and learning totally unique from that which the Krios obtained. Before long immediately after the punctuation of the Bai Bureh Rebellion, the British have been engaged in the pacification method, that is, the suppression of all resistant movements. The colonial governing administration arranged a Protectorate march all through which its troopers shown their sophisticated weapons to show the persons how powerful the governing administration drive was and to frighten them to come to be pusillanimous as far as battling or complicated the administration all over again was concerned. As Fyle noted, “immediately after the war of liberty of 1898, the Sierra Leone hinterland settled down to a uninteresting acceptance of British rule”.19 Rulers like Madam Yoko, Nancy Tucker of Bagru and D.F. Wilberforce who have been favourable to the British have been chosen to come to be Paramount Chiefs. Chiefs suspected to have been disloyal have been both deposed or exiled, for case in point, the fantastic Kebalai (Bai Bureh) of Kasse and Nyagua of Panguma.
The implication below is that Paramount Chiefs will generally strive to preserve the goodwill of the British rather than cultivate the aid of the persons. By 1922, equally chiefs and their persons have been diametrically apart and the former could not be appropriate representatives of the latter. The inclusion of chiefs who neglect the wishes of their persons will for that reason make the Legislative Council unrepresentative. Neither the governor nor the Acting Lawyer-General could encourage Shorunkeh-Sawyerr that the Protectorate inhabitants have been British topics. Shorunkey-Sawyerr’s ask for for annexation was encouraged by the very similar condition in the Gold Coast Colony. He was in fact sure that this would absolutely materialize in the in the vicinity of upcoming and definitely tried out to avert the lawful challenges concerned. He was among the one of the pretty first Sierra Leoneans to argue for annexation and it is fairly for that reason to notice that the Krios have been not automatically against the inclusion of the protectorate into the council.
It appeared as if Shorunkeh-Sawyerr was chaotic counting the stars in the sky in a brilliant night time. The Governor’s intellect was set. He had assumed of reconstitution and its class just before arriving in Sierra Leone and his intellect was almost shut. Maybe he erroneously assumed that the Chiefs in the Protectorate area have been on a par with their Gold Coast counterparts. This around simplication was far too deceptive. According to formal feeling, the Protectorate inhabitants could consider the Oath of Allegiance which is the key precedent to be a member of the Council. Having said that, it would show up as if formal policy wished to hold off the thought of annexation considering the fact that Governor Slater observed that this sort of a ask for should occur from Protectorate inhabitants on their own.
A shut glance at the Excellent Discussion reveals that even the British have been not far too sure irrespective of whether it was definitely correct to have the Protectorate representatives in the Legislative Council. It definitely magnified the perspective of the colonial administration. A single sees traces of racism. The thought of race is tied up with the pseudo-scientific conception of the inequality of the races or even worse continue to, the superiority of European lifestyle. Due to the fact the blackman was believed to be at the foot of the human tree of evolution, he should take the ‘fact’ that the whiteman is pretty intelligent and generally right. There was for that reason that usual ‘jumble obstinacy’ not to generate to the brilliant and authentic argument of the Africans all through this Excellent Discussion.
The colonial administration gave a blind eye to the validity of Shorunkeh-Sawyerr’s plea for annexation and rather uncovered all kinds of ‘rationalization’ to justify their policy.
Sad to say, the Committee of Educated Aborigines (a Protectorate Group) gullibly approved Governor Slater’s place of nevertheless which unrealistically attributed the relative backwardness of the Protectorate to the selfishness of the Colony. These types of tendencious statements have been not only silly or gratuitously provocative but have been also a hotchpotch of throroughly evil nonsense. Newspaper experiences show that – if everything- there have been cries for Protectorate illustration in the Legislative Council. In the nineteenth century, Sir David Chalmers turned down Samuel (afterwards Sir Samuel) Lewis’ cry for Protectorate illustration in the Legislative Council. The assertion for that reason that the colony persons have been totally against Protectorate illustration should not be in a blind fashion. Shorunkeh-Sawyerr cleared this point in one of his speeches. He was not against protectorate illustration. The colony lifted eyebrows mainly because of the fashion of Protectorate illustration. It was distinct that by 1924, the Paramount Chiefs have been all certainly gentlemen of the governing administration. As mentioned earlier mentioned, this condition was carved immediately after the conclusion of the Bai Bureh Rebellion (1898) when so-identified as ‘disloyal’ chiefs have been both exiled or deposed and loyal kinds retained or mounted.
It was distinct that the associates of the Committee of Training Aborigines who felt that the ‘anomaly’ should be corrected represented only a part of the Protectorate. They have been all northerners and their key motive was to foster protectorate issues.
It was for that reason distinct that the policy of the colonial governing administration was bias and once it had been laid down, no volume of goal assessment by colony Africans in Sierra Leone could change it. It is for that reason not astonishing that at the recommendation of Governor Slater, the moot problem was withdrawn. Deveneaux’s comment on colonial policy was an correct one. He commented thus, “the recommendation that colonial policy was formulated in London and sent abroad…describes the condition in the nineteenth century (and also twentieth century) Sierra Leone. Undeniably, this conclusion in London was frequently last….”twenty
As already mentioned, this Excellent Discussion should be place into perspective mainly because it definitely ‘threatened’ the implementation of the 1924 Ransford Slater Constitution. The administration would not generate to the recommendation of Shorunkeh-Sawyerr, having said that legitimate it was. The conclusion of the Excellent Discussion also coincided with the punctuation of the everyday living of that archaic or historic Legislative Council which had served the colony of Sierra Leone for around a millennium.
one. Edward Blyden III, “The pattern of constitutional change in Sierra Leone, 1924-1951), unpublished Ph.D. thesis, Harvard, 1975, p.127
two. Walter T. Wallbank, et.al. Record and Everyday living, (Illinois: Scott, Foreman and Firm, 1977), p.487
3. David Thomson, Europe considering the fact that Napoleon, (Norfolk: Lowe and Brydone Printers Ltd, 1957), p.257
4. The New Encyclopaedia Britannica Vol.27, s.v. “Social Darwinism”, p.339
5. Kenneth Stamp, The Peculiar Establishment, (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1956), p.3
6. Gustav Jahoda, Whiteman, (London: Oxford University Press, 1961), p.113
7. Howard M. Bahr, Bruce A. Chadwick, Joseph H. Stauss, American Ethnicity, (Massachusetts: D.C. Heath & Co., 1979), pp.128-129
8. Boniface Obichere, West African states and European expansion, (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1971), p.245
nine. A.J.G. Wyse, “The Krios of Sierra Leone-Of British imperial overrule?”, p4
ten. Arthur Porter, Creoledom, (London: Oxford University Press, 1963), p.61
eleven. Cecil M. Fyle, The heritage of Sierra Leone, (London: Evans Brothers Ltd., 1981), p.one hundred ten
twelve. Christopher Fyfe, Sierra Leone Inheritance, ed. (London: Oxford University Press, 1964), p.262
13. Gershon Collier, Sierra Leone: experiment in democracy in an African country, (New York: New York University Press, 1970), p.nine
fourteen. W.S. Marcus Jones, “Lawful improvement and constitutional change in Sierra Leone, 1787-1971”, unpublished manuscript, pp.260-261
fifteen. Sierra Leone Legislative Council Debates (henceforth ‘Debates’), 1922-23, Sierra Leone Community Archives, Fourah Bay College or university, p.6
16. Blyden, op.cit., p.128
17. Debates, No.II, 1922-23, p.6
18. Sir Richard Burton: cited in Journal of the Royal African Modern society, Vol.70, p.240
19. Cecil M. Fyle, Alimamy Suluku of Sierra Leone (London: Evans Brothers Ltd., 1979), p.52
twenty. Deveneaux, op.cit., p.47
Resource by Oliver Harding